This report documents the state of human rights in the countries sub-Saharan Africa during 2019. It is composed of a regional overview and 34 country entries, subdivided by key human rights themes. Africa faces numerous human rights challenges. Protecting civilians in armed conflict, freeing human rights defenders and activists from repression, opening up political space for dialogue, tackling discrimination and violence against women and minorities, and safeguarding vulnerable people’s economic, social and cultural rights are just some of them. As the deadline closed in for regional political commitments to “Silencing the Guns” by 2020, the goal of ridding Africa of conflict is still a long way off.