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In the line of fire: civilian casualties from unlawful strikes in the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh

, Index number: EUR 55/3502/2021

Both Armenian and Azerbaijani military forces carried out disproportionate and indiscriminate attacks— prohibited under international humanitarian law—during a 44-day conflict in September to November 2020 over control of the Nagorno-Karabakh region and surrounding territories. The two sides used notoriously inaccurate and indiscriminate weapons in populated civilian areas, including internationally banned cluster munitions, unlawfully killing scores of civilians and wounding hundreds more.

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