Iraqi and Kurdish forces, paramilitary militias, coalition forces and the armed group Islamic State (IS) committed violations of international humanitarian law, war crimes and gross human rights abuses in the armed conflict. IS fighters forcibly displaced thousands of civilians into active conflict, used them as human shields on a mass scale, deliberately killed civilians fleeing the fighting, and recruited and deployed child soldiers. Iraqi and Kurdish forces and paramilitary militias extrajudicially executed captured fighters and civilians fleeing the conflict and destroyed homes and other civilian property. Iraqi and Kurdish forces as well as government authorities arbitrarily detained, forcibly disappeared and tortured civilians suspected of being affiliated with IS. Courts subjected IS suspects and other individuals suspected of terrorism-related offences to unfair trials and sentenced them to death on the basis of “confessions” extracted under torture. Executions continued at an alarming rate.
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