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The federal government continued to impose restrictions on humanitarian aid to Tigray and halted all deliveries in August until November. Thousands of Tigrayan detainees were held arbitrarily in dire conditions, often in unofficial places of detention without access to lawyers. Opposition leaders were held in violation of court orders for their release. Government security forces and armed groups were responsible for the unlawful killings of civilians, which in some cases may have amounted to war crimes. Promises to investigate these crimes remained unfulfilled. Multiple incidents of conflict-related rape and other sexual violence were committed by Tigrayan forces in the Afar region. The right to freedom of expression was significantly eroded.

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Retains the death penalty in law

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