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The authorities continued to detain and prosecute peaceful protesters, journalists, activists and citizens for exercising their rights to peaceful assembly and expression relating to the mass protest movement known as Hirak. Legislative changes imposed further restrictions on freedoms of expression and association, by imposing heavy criminal sanctions for spreading “fake news” and for receiving certain types of foreign funds. A new Constitution was adopted, which improved protection for women but imposed undue restrictions on rights and freedoms by making the exercise of freedom of speech conditional on religious and cultural values. The authorities prevented Christian churches from operating and harassed members of the Ahmadiyya religious community. They also proceeded with mass and arbitrary expulsions of migrants. Discrimination against women in law and practice continued, as did gender-based violence and femicide. Consensual same-sex sexual relations remained criminalized and several arrests were made. The right to form trade unions remained restricted.

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Death penalty status

Abolitionist in practice

Retains the death penalty in law, but hasn’t executed for at least 10 years


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