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All parties to the long-standing conflict and their allies continued to carry out unlawful attacks, killing civilians and destroying vital infrastructure. Türkiye-backed armed groups unlawfully killed four civilians. The government and armed groups denied civilians access to humanitarian aid. The government continued to subject tens of thousands of people to enforced disappearance; the UN General Assembly established an international institution to clarify the fate of missing people and provide reparation to families of victims. The government and armed forces arbitrarily detained individuals for expressing their views. Refugees remained at risk of arrest upon return to Syria. The government continued to prevent residents and internally displaced people in north-west Syria from accessing essential services, violating their economic and social rights. The government violated the right to housing of residents in Aleppo city whose homes were affected by powerful earthquakes on 6 February. The Israeli military violently quelled protests against the installation of turbines in the Golan Heights, a Syrian area occupied by Israel for 56 years.

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Retains the death penalty in law

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