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Russia continued its war of aggression against Ukraine and allowed its forces to commit war crimes with impunity. Meanwhile, the human rights situation at home continued to deteriorate. Freedoms of expression, peaceful assembly and association were further severely restricted. Government critics faced arbitrary prosecution, lengthy prison terms, violent attacks committed with impunity, and other reprisals. Authorities used extensive anti-terrorism and anti-extremism legislation against opposition and religious groups, individual critics and lawyers. Torture and other ill-treatment in detention were widespread and largely went unpunished. Trials were unfair, especially in political cases and those involving Ukrainian prisoners of war. New transphobic legislation was adopted, and the so-called “LGBT movement” was designated as “extremist”. Russia refused to cooperate with international human rights institutions and, after the ICC issued an arrest warrant for President Vladimir Putin, criminalized assistance to it. Authorities failed to prevent antisemitic and anti-refugee violence. Measures to tackle the climate crisis were insufficient and major environmental NGOs were banned from the country.

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Death Penalty status

Abolitionist in practice

Retains the death penalty in law, but hasn’t executed for at least 10 years

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