The civilian population suffered crimes under international law, human rights violations and abuses because of the continuing conflict. Conflict-related violence led to thousands of deaths and injuries and the displacement of hundreds of thousands. The International Criminal Court (ICC) decided not to investigate crimes against humanity and war crimes committed, but the decision is currently subject to appeal. Human rights defenders were intimidated, threatened, detained and killed. European and neighbouring countries continued to forcibly return Afghan asylum-seekers and refugees. Gender-based violence against women and girls persisted due to weak rule of law and existence of harmful traditional and cultural practices. It became increasingly difficult for journalists to work and they faced reprisals from armed groups, state officials, and security forces. At least five journalists were killed by the Taliban and other armed groups.
Death penalty status
Retains the death penalty in law
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