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Anti-human rights rhetoric continued to escalate, increasing the risks to human rights defenders. The shrinking of civic space fomented by an official narrative that stigmatized NGOs, journalists, activists, human rights defenders and social movements continued. Obstacles to freedom of expression and attempts to restrict this right impacted the work of journalists and media workers. Attacks and killings of human rights defenders, members of Indigenous Peoples, Quilombola communities and environmental defenders remained chronic problems. Protection of natural resources and traditional territories was neglected as government structures to protect Indigenous Peoples and the environment were further dismantled and weakened. Violence against women increased in the context of measures introduced to curb the spread of COVID-19. The pandemic exposed deep-seated inequalities in Brazilian society, impacting communities that face discrimination disproportionately. The President’s ongoing denial of the gravity of the COVID-19 pandemic only exacerbated the situation.

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Death penalty status

Abolitionist for ordinary crimes only

Retains the death penalty only for serious crimes, such as those committed during times of war


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