This document describes the massive human rights violations which took place in Ethiopia during the rule of ex-President Mengistu Haile Mariam. Opponents of the Mengistu regime, often members of ethnic groups e.g. Tigrayans, Eritreans or Oromos were subjected to arbitrary arrest and detention, torture, “disappearance” and killing. Conditions in detention centres such as the Maikelawi Mirmera (Central Investigation centre) and the Karchele (Central Prison) in Addis Ababa or the Mariam Gimbi in Asmara are described. Information is given about the legal context in which these abuses occured, and about the war and political violence which characterized this period. Appendices list the names of some 46 people who “disappeared” during the period 1979-1986.