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Militias, armed groups and security forces across Libya intensified their suppression of dissent, and attacks on civil society. Thousands of people remained arbitrarily detained in conditions violating the absolute prohibition of torture and other ill-treatment, while hundreds of peaceful protesters, activists, journalists and others were arrested solely because of the peaceful exercise of their human rights. Militias and armed groups killed and wounded civilians and destroyed civilian infrastructure during intensified armed hostilities. Armed groups forced thousands of people out of their homes, including in reprisal for their alleged affiliation or to appropriate their lands. Amid pervasive impunity and ongoing funding and integration of abusive militias and armed groups in state institutions, calls for accountability grew in the aftermath of the staggering loss of life, destruction and forced displacement in the wake of Storm Daniel. Discrimination and violence against women and girls remained pervasive. LGBTI individuals continued to be subjected to arbitrary arrests, unjust prosecution and other abuse. Ethnic minorities continued to face discrimination and barriers to accessing health, education and other services. Refugees and migrants, including those intercepted at sea by EU-backed coastguards and armed groups, were subjected to torture and other ill-treatment, extortion and forced labour; thousands were forcibly expelled without due process.

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