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The authorities cracked down on peaceful dissent, arbitrarily arresting critics of the president’s development agenda, opposition members and those linked to the opposition, lawyers, Indigenous Maasai People and activists. Parliament amended the Media Services Act. The high court ruled in favour of the Maasais in Loliondo in relation to their forced eviction from ancestral land. East African Crude Oil Pipeline Ltd obtained a licence to construct a 1,443km pipeline. Authorities refused access to international fact-finding missions to assess human rights violations against the Maasais in Ngorongoro. The decision to withdraw a court declaration that would allow individuals and NGOs direct access to the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights remained in force. Despite improvements in education provisions, low school retention rates for girls persisted due to poverty, early pregnancy and gender-based violence in schools. The use of inflammatory language against LGBTI people intensified.

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Death Penalty status

Abolitionist in practice

Retains the death penalty in law, but hasn’t executed for at least 10 years

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