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Officials failed to uphold the rights to freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association. Many independent human rights organizations were not allowed to operate and many civil society actors remained in exile. Targeted attacks by security forces and the Imbonerakure (the ruling party’s youth wing) continued against government critics and members of the opposition, including arbitrary arrests and detention and enforced disappearances. Detainees’ rights were violated. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission faced accusations of bias. The government’s failure to address fuel shortages and an ill-advised decision to ban bicycles, tricycles and motorbikes from Bujumbura’s city centre adversely affected the cost of living, impacting social and economic rights. Some returning refugees were subjected to harassment, intimidation and attacks.

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Death Penalty status

Abolitionist for all crimes

Does not use the death penalty

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