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Various interrelated trends drove political instability. Armed groups carried out attacks against civilians, and security forces were alleged to have committed serious human rights violations and abuses in their response to the violence.  The crackdown on freedom of expression, peaceful assembly and association continued.

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Death penalty status

Abolitionist for all crimes

Does not use the death penalty


Media enquiries

Robert Shivambu

Southern Africa Press Officer, +27 11 283 6000

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Amnesty International Secretariat Office

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