© UNHCR/Kelvin Shimo
  • Country profile


The security forces and opposition members and supporters committed human rights abuses with impunity, including killings, torture and other ill-treatment. Thousands of refugees fled to Malawi and Zimbabwe. People expressing dissent or criticizing human rights violations, political and military instability or the country’s hidden debts faced attacks and intimidation.

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Death penalty status

Abolitionist for all crimes

Does not use the death penalty



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Robert Shivambu

Southern Africa Press Officer, +27 11 283 6000

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