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Authorities’ violent response to attempts to cross the border between Melilla and Morocco in 2022 remained without effective investigation. There was no progress in investigations into the use of spyware to target politicians and members of civil society. Gender-based violence against women and girls persisted. A law was passed to remove barriers to abortion. New legislation to protect the right to housing was positive, but failed to protect vulnerable people from evictions. Vaguely formulated offences were misused to curb freedom of expression and peaceful assembly. The first case in Spain regarding torture during the Franco era opened. Some positive measures to tackle the climate crisis were adopted but remained insufficient.

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