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The authorities’ violent response to people’s attempts to cross the border between Melilla and Morocco resulted in deaths, torture and unlawful expulsions. Spyware was used to target Catalan politicians and members of civil society. Violence against women persisted. A bill to remove some barriers to abortion came before parliament. A problematic bill that criminalizes aspects of sex work was tabled. The government approved a landmark bill on gender self-determination. The authorities did not protect adequately the rights to health and housing. Concerns continued about the use of electroshock equipment by police. Vaguely formulated offences were misused to curb freedom of expression and peaceful assembly. New legislation was a positive step in fighting impunity for violations perpetrated during the Civil War and dictatorship. Measures to tackle the climate crisis remained inadequate.

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Abolitionist for all crimes

Does not use the death penalty

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