A broken system

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The world’s system for protecting refugees is broken. It is obvious – from Australia to South Sudan’s vast camps, from Istanbul’s cold streets to the European Union’s heavily fortified walls.

Worldwide, more than 21 million peoplehave been forced to seek sanctuary abroad. Governments have a duty to help them. But most rich countries are still treating refugees as somebody else’s problem. Hiding behind closed borders and fears of being “flooded”, they have conveniently allowed poorer, mainly Middle Eastern, African and South Asian countries, to host an incredible 86% of all refugees.

And by ignoring most appeals for humanitarian aid, they have left UN agencies so broke they can’t even feed many refugees properly anymore.

This has to change, now. Amnesty is putting forward eight solutions for how world leaders – in particular the richest countries – can start tackling this massive humanitarian crisistogether.

People are dying while governments spend billions on border control

Amnesty International

The world refugee crisis in numbers

22M+
People who are refugees worldwide
10%
Percentage of all refugees who should be resettled every year
84%
Percentage of all refugees hosted by low and middle income countries

Eight ways to solve the crisis

1.Opening up safe routes to sanctuaryfor refugees is one important solution. That means allowing people to reunite with their relatives, and giving refugees visas so they don’t have to spend their life savings and risk drowningto reach safety.

2.It also means resettling all refugees who need it. Resettlement is a vital solution for the most vulnerable refugees – including torture survivors and people with serious medical problems.

Right now, 1.2 million people urgently need this lifeline

The world refugee crisis in pictures

Refugees and migrants try to reach the Greek island of Lesvos after crossing the Aegean sea from Turkey, 30 September 2015.
©AFP/Getty Images
Refugees walk on a motorway near Edirne, Turkey, 19 September 2015.
Inside view of a tent in a refugee transit center, Opatovac, Croatia, 7 October 2015.
© Giles Clarke/Getty Images Reportage
Asylum-seekers arrive in Nauru, 14 September 2012. The Pacific island nation hosts a detention centre for people who have tried to reach Australia in rickety boats, usually from Indonesia. Amnesty has expressed serious concerns about recent allegations of rape, sexual harassment and physical abuse of refugees and migrants on Nauru.
© STRINGER/Reuters/Corbis
Italian language books are given out at the ‘Papa Francisco’ African migrant center for minors in eastern Sicily to help with them integrate into Italian society. The 80 boys aged under 18 here were all rescued off of smugglers’ boats in the Mediterranean.
© Giles Clarke/Getty Images Reportage
These women and girls fled from Darfur, Sudan, to eastern Chad in 2013, following some of the worst fighting and violence in years.
© Amnesty International
Myanmar’s navy rescues a boat with 219 migrants on board, 22 May 2015.
© Myanmar Information Ministry
Aerial view of Zaatari refugee camp, Jordan – now home to almost 90,000 people.
© REUTERS/Mandel Ngan/Pool
Girls walk through Jarahieh, a refugee settlement in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley in Lebanon, September 2014.
Amnesty International (Photo: Ina Tin)

Saving lives

3. World leaders also need to put saving lives first. No one should have to die crossing a border, and yet almost 7,000 people drowned in the Mediterranean alone in the two years since the first big shipwreck in October 2013. 

Thousands of people fleeing persecution in Myanmarsuffered for weeks on board boats while Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia bickered over who should help them in May 2015.

States can stop this by investing in search and rescue operations and immediately helping people in distress.

4.And whether they travel by land or by sea, people fleeing persecution or wars should be allowed to cross borders, with or without travel documents. Pushing people backand putting up massive fencesonly forces them to take more dangerous routes to safety.

Tension at the Hungarian border

Stop trafficking and racism

5. All countries shouldinvestigate andprosecute trafficking gangswho exploit refugees and migrants, and put people’s safety above all else. Survivors whom Amnesty met in Southeast Asia said traffickers killed people on board boats when their families couldn’t pay ransoms. Others were thrown overboard and left to drown, or died from because there was no food and water.

6. Governments also need to stop blaming refugees and migrants for economic and social problems, and instead combat all kinds of xenophobia and racial discrimination. Doing otherwise is deeply unfair, stirs up tensions and fear of foreigners, and sometimes leads to violence – even death.

In Durban, South Africa, at least four people died, many were seriously injured, and over 1,000 mainly Burundian and Congolese refugees forced to flee after violence and lootingbroke out in April and May 2015.  

Start funding ‘broke’ UN properly

7.“Financially broke” is how Antonio Guterres, the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, described UN agenciesin September 2015. Wealthy countries quite simply aren’t keeping their high-profile promises to fund aid for refugees abroad.

For example, the UN has received less than half the funding it needs to support Syria’s 4 million refugees. This is now forcing 80% of refugees living outside camps in Jordan to do dangerous, degrading jobs or send their children out to beg.

South Sudan’s forgotten refugee crisis has been met with a pitiful 18% of the money needed for absolute basics like food and medicine.

People are dying while governments spend billions on border control. They urgently need to guarantee full funding to alleviate refugee crises worldwide.

Asylum is a human right

8. The world has a very short memory. In the aftermath of World War II, most countries agreed to protect refugees through the 1951 Refugee Convention, and through UN agencies like the UNHCR.

Barbed wire fences and chronic underfunding have left that vision of a better world in tatters. By ignoring the warning signs, world leaders have allowed a huge, global humanitarian crisis to unfold. Ultimately, it will be resolved by ending the conflicts and persecution that forced people to flee in the first place.

But no one knows when that will be. Meanwhile, we need radical solutions, visionary leadership and global co-operation on a scale not seen for 70 years. That involves setting up strong refugee systems: allowing people to apply for asylum, treating their refugee claims fairly, resettling the most vulnerable of all, and providing basics like education and healthcare.

None of these eight solutions are impossible to achieve, if politicians listen to the millions of people saying “I welcome refugees”, and put solidarity and compassion above petty wrangling over who should host a few thousand refugees.

None of these eight solutions are impossible to achieve, if politicians listen to the millions of people saying ‘refugees welcome!’

Amnesty International