Militias, armed groups and security forces committed serious violations of international humanitarian law, including war crimes. Fighting in and around Tripoli between forces and militias loyal to the Government of National Accord (GNA) and the Libyan National Army (LNA) killed scores of civilians, injured hundreds more and displaced tens of thousands. Militias, armed groups and security forces arbitrarily detained thousands of people, most indefinitely without any judicial process. They also took some hostage for ransoms or to press for the release of a detainee or captive. Torture and other ill-treatment were widespread in prisons, detention centres and unofficial places of detention. Militias, armed groups and security forces suppressed freedom of expression by harassing, abducting and attacking politicians, journalists, human rights defenders and other activists; one journalist was unlawfully killed and 10 others arbitrarily detained. The Libyan authorities failed to protect women from gender-based violence at the hands of militias and armed groups. Intimidation, threats and violence against lawyers and judges by armed groups and militias seriously undermined the judicial system. The situation for tens of thousands of refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants remained bleak, as they were exposed to arbitrary arrest and abduction by militias and were regularly the victims of human trafficking and abuses by criminal groups. The authorities continued to unlawfully detain thousands of people in centres where they were subjected to exploitation, forced labour, torture and other ill-treatment. People were targeted by security forces, armed groups and militias because of their sexual orientation. Courts continued to hand down death sentences; no executions were reported.
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SARA HASHASH AND MOHAMMED ABUNAJELA
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