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Both the armed group Boko Haram and Nigerian security forces continued to commit serious crimes in the north-east, including war crimes and likely crimes against humanity. Boko Haram killed hundreds of civilians and carried out abductions which targeted women and girls. Government forces carried out indiscriminate attacks against villages and continued to detain thousands in inhumane conditions. In the north-western and north-central regions, over 1,500 people died in inter-communal violence and bandit attacks. Everywhere, excessive use of force resulting in unlawful killings, and torture and other ill-treatment were widespread. The fate of hundreds of Islamic Movement of Nigeria (IMN) members who disappeared in 2015 remained unknown. Meanwhile, impunity for such crimes persisted. The rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly and association were routinely violated. In the context of COVID-19, gender-based violence increased and the right to health was undermined. Thousands of people were forcibly evicted from their homes.

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Death penalty status


Retains the death penalty in law


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