Amnesty International takes no position on issues of sovereignty or territorial disputes. Borders on this map are based on UN Geospatial data.
Back to Mongolia

Mongolia 2023

Criminal convictions against peaceful protesters were upheld. Authorities restricted the right to peaceful assembly of LGBTI people. Arbitrary detention was common and concerns about confessions obtained under duress persisted. The authorities failed to protect herder communities from environmental degradation caused by mining operations.

Freedom of expression and assembly

In January, an appeal court confirmed the convictions of five activists belonging to the groups “No War” and “No Double Standard”. They were sentenced in November 2022 to 12 months’ confinement to their districts of residence for resisting a law enforcement officer during a peaceful demonstration in October 2021. In April, the Supreme Court dismissed a further appeal by the five.

Following a public outcry, on 27 January the President vetoed the Protection of Human Rights on Social Networks bill, which provided the government with new powers to monitor and delete social media content and to suspend and delete accounts on grounds of protecting “national unity” and “state secrets”. The bill was adopted by parliament without public consultation on 20 January.1

According to the LGBT Centre Mongolia, the authorities refused to allow a march in support of LGBTI rights to take place during the Equality and Pride Days in August.

Arbitrary detention and torture and other ill-treatment

The UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention raised concerns about procedural guarantees, including the high percentage of arrests conducted without advance warrants particularly by specialized agencies such as the General Intelligence Agency and the Independent Authority Against Corruption, and about continued reports of confessions obtained under duress. Other concerns raised included the failure to provide defence lawyers with full and timely access to their clients’ files and its impact on their ability to effectively challenge the necessity of pretrial detention.

Right to a healthy environment

Coal and other mining operations in the Gobi region continued to cause environmental damage and negatively impact the health and livelihoods of herder communities. A new report by the NGO Forum-Asia, on the impacts of mining operations in Dornogovi province, found that dust and noise pollution and failure to safely manage hazardous waste had resulted in allergies, infections, respiratory and mental health problems among nomadic herders, as well as the shrinkage of available pasture and declining livestock health.

Right to water

In May, following investigations by the mayor’s office into hundreds of complaints from residents in the Khan-Uul district of the capital, Ulaanbaatar, about the poor quality of drinking water and resulting ill health, including rashes and stomach problems, it was announced that state officials and companies responsible for installing the water pipes will be held accountable.

  1. “Mongolia: The government of Mongolia is inadequately implementing its obligation to protect freedom of expression”, 17 July (Mongolian only)