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The conflict between the government and Al-Shabaab continued, and all parties committed serious abuses of international humanitarian and human rights law with impunity. Insecurity, drought, floods and food insecurity caused the displacement of over 2.9 million people and a dire humanitarian crisis. Internally displaced people faced human rights violations; women and girls were particularly exposed to gender-based and conflict-related sexual violence. The right to freedom of expression was restricted, and journalists were attacked, beaten, and arbitrarily arrested and prosecuted. In Somaliland, a new conflict erupted in the city of Las Anod in Sool region, leading to civilian casualties, destruction of civilian property and massive displacement. Somaliland authorities also restricted the rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly.

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Retains the death penalty in law

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