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Health care workers lacked adequate personal protective equipment at the beginning of the pandemic. COVID-19 deaths among older people were disproportionate. Police officers issued more than one million fines and subjected some individuals to arbitrary punishments for COVID-19 lockdown breaches. Allegations of excessive use of force by law enforcement officers policing protests continued. There was a significant rise in calls to helplines by women at risk of gender-based violence. Lack of affordable housing and homelessness remained a major concern. Migrants and refugees were confined to overcrowded facilities in Melilla during lockdown.

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Death penalty status

Abolitionist for all crimes

Does not use the death penalty


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