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Security forces used unnecessary or excessive force, including lethal force, against demonstrators opposing proposed changes to the Constitution. Protesters were arbitrarily arrested and freedom of expression was curtailed. Expulsions of non-nationals resumed, targeting West African citizens, while no investigations were launched into the 2014 “Mbata ya Bakolo” operation, in which more than 179,000 nationals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) were expelled. The UN Committee against Torture expressed serious concern that torture and other ill-treatment occurred in most places of detention. Conditions of detention remained harsh. Presidential elections will be held in March 2016.

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Death penalty status

Abolitionist for all crimes

Does not use the death penalty



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