This report is the result of research, including in eastern DRC, into human rights abuses associated with economic exploitation taking place in areas under the control of the armed opposition groups and foreign forces. It sets out the economic context in which violations are taking place. It looks at the major actors, and at the economic forces and mineral resources fuelling the war. It documents human rights abuses and the failure to bring those suspected to be responsible to justice. It shows how the search for economic gain is still costing civilian lives.