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A contested presidential election was marked by increased political violence. The authorities used the Public Order Act to repress the rights to freedom of expression, assembly and association; the police used excessive force to disperse meetings of opposition parties. The authorities cracked down on independent media outlets and harassed journalists. In April, there was a wave of xenophobic violence against foreign nationals.

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Death penalty status

Abolitionist in practice

Retains the death penalty in law, but hasn’t executed for at least 10 years



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