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The authorities cracked down on critics, including human rights defenders, journalists and opposition political party members. The Public Order Act was used to repress rights to freedom of expression, association and assembly. The police used unnecessary and excessive force against peaceful protesters and failed to address violence by groups close to the government. The judiciary came under verbal attack from the President. Levels of food insecurity in rural areas remained high.


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Death penalty status

Abolitionist in practice

Retains the death penalty in law, but hasn’t executed for at least 10 years


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Robert Shivambu

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