This report documents in detail Amnesty International’s concerns regarding allegations of the widespread and systematic use of torture and ill-treatment in the Russian Federation. It examines current legislation facilitating torture and ill-treatment, and cases of torture and ill-treatment by police, particularly the targeting of ethnic minorities. It reports on examples of torture and ill-treatment in pre-trial detention and conditions of detention amounting to torture, and the use of confessions extracted under torture in judicial proceedings. It also reports on torture and ill-treatment, including rape, during the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic, and examples of torture and ill-treatment in the army and of conscientious objectors. It further condemns the deportation of asylum-seekers to countries where they may face torture and ill-treatment, and the continued use of the death penalty. The report concludes with a series of proposals and recommendations aimed at the prevention of torture, including urging the authorities to implement the recommendations of the UN Committee against Torture.