China: Punishment without crime: administrative detention
In this report Amnesty International examines the various forms of administrative detention in China, amongst which "shelter and investigation" and "re-education through labour" feature most prominently. Extensive analysis and commentary of the relevant legal provisions is provided: official regulations for administrative detention are vague and many are unpublished. Such regulations as exist are frequently ignored. Individual cases of prisoners of conscience detained for re-education through labour include: Zhou Lunyou, Liu Guangdong, Su Zhimin, Yang Libo, Wang Yijun, Xu Guoxing, Liu Qinglin, Liu Huanwen, and Tibetans, including monks and nuns imprisoned for involvement in pro-independence demonstrations in Tibet in 1989.