Lebanon protests explained
Last Updated: 16 July 2020
Mass protests swept across Lebanon shortly after the government announced new tax measures on 17 October. In unprecedented scenes tens of thousands of peaceful protesters from different religious and class sectors of society assembled in cities across the country accusing the political leadership of corruption and calling for social and economic reforms.
Waving the Lebanese flag, the crowds chanted demands for the "fall of the regime" many of them repeating the slogan "all of them means all of them" - a reference to key ruling figures from a variety of religious sects who have dominated the Lebanese political scene for decades.
Underlying frustration with the government and the political elite had been accumulating for years. Public anger has escalated in recent years over electricity and water shortages, as well as the government’s failure to manage the country's waste and economic crises.
Despite government attempts to placate the protesters with announced reforms, demonstrations continued in Beirut, Tripoli, Zouk, Jal el Dib, Saida, Nabatieh, Sour and Zahle. On the 13th day of the protests, Prime Minister Saad Hariri announced his resignation.
Protesters are making their voices heard in a peaceful manner – the authorities have an obligation to protect this right
- Roads blocked
- Excessive use of force
- Protesters attacked
- Women's rights
Key Protester Demands
Some of the key demands of protesters based on chants made during demonstrations and analysis by the Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs at the American University of Beirut include:
- An end to government corruption
- An end to the sectarian political system
- The recovery of stolen funds and holding the corrupt accountable
- Fair tax and financial procedures
Punishing the movement
Since October 2019, the Lebanese authorities have been relentlessly harassing journalists and activists who were visible during the October protest movement, by repeatedly summoning and interrogating them on the basis of problematic defamation laws, in a manner that could cause a chilling effect on the wider movement and on the right to freedom of peaceful assembly.
Between 17 October 2019 and 24 June 2020, Amnesty International reviewed 75 cases of individuals who were summoned, including 20 journalists, based on charges of defamation in relation to social media posts criticizing the authorities. A range of military and security institutions have been responsible for these, despite the fact that none of these are mandated to look into matters of free speech. Individuals were threatened with prosecution and pressured into deleting the social media posts and/or signing illegal pledges to stop criticizing, organizing or protesting. Some of these individuals have themselves in turn pressed charges, including claims of torture – but the judiciary has to date failed to open any investigations into such claims.
Stop the Crackdown on Freedom of Expression!
Violations by the Authorities
Failure to protect peaceful protesters
Torture and other ill-treatment
Use of excessive force
Unblocking roads by force
Forcibly dispersing protesters
Arbitrary Arrests and Torture
Since the beginning of the protests, military and security forces arrests hundreds of peaceful protesters across Lebanon, including Sour, Jal el Dib, Zouk, Beirut, and Beddawi. Amnesty International has documented a number of violations, including arrests without warrant, severe beatings, insults and humiliation, blindfolding and forced confessions. Four people in Beddawi were unlawfully detained for six days by the military before being released. Their whereabouts were unknown and they were denied access to their lawyers and family, amounting to possible enforced disappearance under international law. Two people told the organization that they had been subjected to mock executions. In the rare cases where a minority of protesters were involved in vandalism, security forces responded disproportionately, including by arresting a number of peaceful protesters.
The Lawyers’ Committee to Defend Protesters in Lebanon estimates that security forces arrested as many as 100 people across the country, including five children (under 18 years) on 14 and 15 January 2020 during various protests, a few of which included some clashes between the police and protesters.
Number of Arrests since 17 October 2019
Numbers collected by the Lawyers’ Committee to Defend Protesters. Last updated: 1 February 2020.
Failure to protect peaceful protesters
Amnesty International has documented how on a number of occasions Lebanese security forces failed to effectively intervene to protect protesters when they came under attack by supporters of the ruling parties Hezbollah and Amal.
On the 18 October in the southern city of Sour, eyewitnesses said army officers allowed visibly armed supporters of the Amal movement to assault peaceful protesters. In the southern city of Nabatiyyeh on 23 October, dozens of men armed with sticks and batons stormed a sit in beating protesters and dispersing them.
Days later on 29 October Lebanese security forces failed to adequately intervene when Amal and Hezbollah supporters beat and chased demonstrators and set fire to their tents at the Ring Highway in Beirut.
Members of the armed forces have a duty to ensure that the right to peaceful protest is upheld and that includes protecting peaceful demonstrators from coming under attack from rival protesters.
They began to beat protesters with sticks and push us, they tried to beat me… There were security forces there, but they stood on the sidelines
Excessive use of force
The protests across Lebanon have been overwhelmingly peaceful and the response from army and security forces has been largely restrained. However, Amnesty International has documented incidents of excessive use of force, including in one incident, the use of live ammunition against peaceful protesters.
On 18 October in downtown Beirut, shortly after the speech of Prime Minister Hariri, security forces used excessive force to disperse protesters firing huge amounts of tear gas into crowds and chasing protesters down streets and alleys at gunpoint and beating them.
On 23 October officers from the Lebanese army and army intelligence resorted to excessive force in seeking to disperse protesters who had blocked the main Awwali highway in the southern city of Saida. Officers armed with riot shields forcibly removed protesters who sat on the ground with their arms raised as a peaceful sign, carrying them away away and handcuffing them. They also kicked and beat protesters with iron batons as well as verbally assaulting them.
I saw him aiming at me while I threw stones and said don’t shoot! I’ll stop throwing the stones… but he shot me four times in the stomach
In the most violent episode since the protests began, the army opened fire against dozens of protesters staging a sit-in the Beddawi area of Tripoli in north Lebanon on 26 October. Soldiers attempting to clear a road began to beat the protesters who responded by throwing stones at them. The soldiers then opened fire using live ammunition seriously wounding at least two protesters. Four people were unlawfully detained for six days by the military before being released. Their whereabouts were unknown and they were denied access to their lawyers and family, amounting to possible enforced disappearance under international law.
Amnesty's Key calls
⮞ Authorities must stop harassing activists and journalists a and must respect their right to freedom of expression and assembly
⮞ Army and security forces must end the use of excessive force against peaceful protesters
⮞ Judiciary must order an independent and impartial investigation into unlawful use of force
⮞ Security forces must protect peaceful protesters from intimidation or violent attacks
⮞ The authorities must end unlawful detention and respect legal rights of individuals
© JOSEPH EID/AFP via Getty Images)