This research paper documents violations of human rights which have taken place in Iran since 1987. It reports widespread arbitrary arrest and detention of political opponents of the regime, unfair summary trials, torture and mass execution of political prisoners and of ordinary criminals. At least 2,000 political prisoners were summarily executed in the second half of 1988, many condemned after interrogation by so-called “Death Commissions”. More than 1,500 alleged criminal offenders were executed in 1989 alone, most by hanging, some by stoning. Islamic courts continue to impose punishments of flogging and amputation. The report examines the structure of the Iranian judiciary and legal procedures in Iran. It concludes by summarizing AI’s recommendations.