Police in Spain target people belonging to ethnic minorities for identity checks. People who are not “European-looking” can be stopped several times a day to have their papers checked on the pretext of “migration control”. The Spanish authorities deny that racial profiling takes place. This report, however, documents the common practice of discriminatory identity checks and records people’s direct experience of them. Faced with this evidence, the authorities cannot continue to deny this racism at the heart of a modern multicultural Spain, and must act to stop it.