Russian Federation: Overview of recent legal changes
Various legislative changes have been implemented aimed at bringing Russian laws in line with international standards. This report examines the death penalty and moves towards abolition, including the fall in numbers of executions and the rise in commutations; the reduction in the death penalty's scope and application; and the introduction of trial by jury. It notes the decriminalization of consensual homosexuality, and reforms made with regard to conscientious objection to military service. These include moves towards the provision of an alternative service, although at least two conscientious objectors, Aleksandr Sergeyevich Chizhikov and Oleg Nikolayevich Astashkin, were sentenced to imprisonment this year.