Thailand’s three southern-most provinces are host to a non-international armed conflict, based on the intensity and duration of hostilities there, as well as the existence of organized groups of insurgents. Amnesty International believes that the insurgents, through widespread killings of civilians from both Buddhist and Muslim communities, are committing acts aimed at spreading terror among the civilian population. This report examines the circumstances surrounding 82 deaths that resulted from attacks by insurgents. Fifty-five of those killed were Muslims, while 27 were Buddhists. Individual cases are illustrative.