Human rights defenders who work on issues related to the environment, territory and access to land in Peru and Paraguay carry out their activities in a hostile environment. In both countries, individuals and communities fighting to protect their access to water and land are stigmatized and their work is delegitimized through public statements and rumours. Their communities are forcibly evicted from their homes or face the risk of eviction without due process guarantees. Finally, defenders face unfair and unfounded criminal proceedings. They are prosecuted and tried without evidence for crimes solely related to their work to defend human rights.