Over four days in July 2016, government forces loyal to South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir, and opposition forces loyal to then-First Vice President Riek Machar, engaged in active combat in Juba. Hundreds were killed during the fighting, including numerous civilians. This report describes the serious violations of international human rights and humanitarian law that took place. Government soldiers deliberately killed Nuer civilians, and fired indiscriminately in civilian neighbourhoods and around UN protection of civilians sites. Both during and after the fighting, government forces engaged in a massive campaign of looting.