This report reviews the human rights dimension of nursing and midwifery. It summarizes historical links between nursing and human rights. These include a duty of care, patient consent, confidentiality, respect for patient dignity and the area of genetic information. The report examines the risks of human rights violation faced by nurses and midwives, both in connection with their work in places of conflict as well as their exposure to violence in the workplace. It reviews some of the human rights violations which may impact on the individual nurse or midwife and on other health professionals in their professional practice.