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Egypt: Women targeted by association

, Index number: MDE 12/011/1997

Dozens of women in Egypt have been subjected to human rights violations, including arbitrary detention and torture, usually on account of their marital or other family relationships. Members of the security forces, particularly the State Security Investigations Department (SSI), have taken wives and female relatives of Islamist activists effectively as hostages, when they could not find the men wanted for arrest. This report highlights the cases of three such women: Amal Farouq Mohammad al-Maas, who has been repeatedly detained and tortured, including being threatened with rape; Gihan Ibrahim 'Abd al-Hamid, who has been detained without trial since 7 November 1994; and Marwa al-Sayyid Metwalli Hafez, aged 18, who "disappeared" on 18 August 1996.

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