The rights and status of women in Afghanistan became an issue of global concern prior to the military intervention by a United States-led coalition that brought about the end of the Taleban regime in November 2001. The international community, including members of the coalition, made repeated undertakings that their intervention would support women in realizing their rights. However, two years after the ending of the Taleban regime, the international community and Afghan Transitional Administration (ATA) led by President Hamid Karzai have proved unable to protect women. The criminal justice system is at present unable to do so and prosecution for violence against women is virtually absent. Amnesty International is gravely concerned by the extent of this violence and in this report it calls on the international community and the ATA to act with urgency to protect women from violence, and to build a criminal justice system that is able to defend women human rights.