Rwanda’s laws banning “genocide ideology” and “sectarianism” are vague and sweeping, and have been used to silence legitimate dissent. The laws were designed to encourage unity and restrict speech that could lead to hatred. However, they have had dangerous and chilling effect on Rwandan society. This report outlines Amnesty International’s concerns about these laws on paper and in practice. It calls on the government of Rwanda to ensure that, while outlawing acts of genocide and incitement to genocide, it upholds its international obligations to respect and protect freedom of expression.