This publication considers that, ten years after horrific executions, the exploitation of oil in the Niger Delta continues to result in deprivation, injustice and violence. Despite a return to civilian government, those responsible for human rights violations under military governments have not been brought to justice. The security forces are still allowed to kill people and raze communities with impunity. The environmental harm to health and livelihoods that impelled the Ogoni campaign for economic and social rights remains the reality for many inhabitants of the Delta region. Companies fail to live up to human rights principles.