Thousands of ethnic minority people have fled Burma to escape the indiscriminate brutality of the army’s counter-insurgency operations. Most of the refugees are from the Karen State, a mountainous area bordering on Thailand. Others come from the Mon and Kachin States and other parts of Burma. Their plight has received little attention from the international community. In this report Amnesty International publishes, for the first time, a detailed account of the widespread extrajudicial executions and torture and harsh treatment inflicted on these people by soldiers operating in defiance of both Burmese and international law.