One third of the world’s refugees and more than half the internally displaced are in Africa. Widespread disregard for human rights has caused their forcible displacement, increasingly in the context of wars characterized by ethnic violence. This report, issued as part of the Refugee Campaign, demonstrates that crises of forcible displacement cannot be resolved unless the underlying human rights issues are addressed. AI therefore calls on all governments to take concrete measures to prevent human rights violations and to live up to their responsibilities to protect the fundamental human rights of their citizens. It also urges all armed opposition groups to abide by the principles of international humanitarian law. AI also calls on all governments to end transfers of equipment and training for military, security or police forces where these are used to commit or facilitate human rights abuses.