In the context of the UPR, Amnesty International has made the following recommendations to Lebanon
National legislation affecting women
• To review existing legislation and to amend as necessary any discriminatory provisions relating to gender equality, including rights in marriage, divorce and inheritance, and the right of women to confer nationality to their children and spouses;
• To amend Law No. 15 of 1925 relating to nationality to give women equal rights with men to confer their nationality to their children and spouses in conformity with Articles 2, 3, 24 and 26 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and Article 7 on the Convention on the Rights of the Child;
• To lift all reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, including Article 9 paragraph 2.
National legislation affecting the rights of Palestinian refugees
• To review existing legislation and to amend as necessary any provisions that do not comply with Lebanon’s obligations under international law, including:
- To amend Law No. 296 of 3 April 2001 to enable Palestinians to exercise their right to own and inherit property, and to ensure that such amendment is in conformity with Article 5 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) and other provisions proscribing discrimination included in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR);
- To amend provisions of the social security law to grant Palestinians and their children equal rights to public health services, medical care, social security and social services, and to ensure that all amendments are in conformity with Article 5 of the ICERD, Article 26 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the ICESCR;
- To amend the Labour Law to allow Palestinians to have equal access to employment in jobs that were restricted to them prior to 2005, to equal wages as Lebanese citizens, and to attain job security; and also to remove the restrictions on the remaining 20 job categories and to ensure that these amendments are made permanent in law;
- To make primary education compulsory, free and available to all children, and to ensure that the government respects its obligations under Article 28 of the CRC and Article 13 of the ICESCR.
Situation of Palestinian non-ID holders
• To take immediately all necessary steps to regularize, without delay, the status of non-ID Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, including by:
- Registering all non-ID Palestinian refugees under Lebanese jurisdiction, providing them with official identification documents, ensuring that all their current and future children are provided with the necessary registration and documents, and ensuring that the authorities comply with article 7(1) of the CRC and article 24 of the ICCPR, which stipulates that every child has the right to be registered immediately after birth and the right to have a name and to acquire a nationality;
- Allowing, with immediate effect, Palestinian refugee students who do not have identification documentations to sit the Lebanese state exams, which give access to higher levels of education.
Abductions and enforced disappearances
• To ratify the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance;
• To establish a body aimed at ensuring that the right to truth, justice and reparation of families of victims of abduction and enforced disappearance is upheld, and tasked to achieve the following:
- Locating Lebanese citizens and foreign nationals who were abducted on Lebanese soil and transferred to other countries, and undertaking all efforts to secure their release;
- Locating and protecting mass graves in Lebanon believed to contain the remains of unidentified victims of the civil war that could belong to those who were subject to abductions and enforced disappearances, including three mass graves located in Beirut and mentioned in the findings of the Official Commission of Investigation into the Fate of the Abducted and Disappeared Persons in 2000: the St Demetrious Cemetery in Achrafieh, the Martyrs’ Cemetery in Horsh Beirut and the English Cemetery in Tahwita;
- Locating and protecting other possible mass graves, including the site that was formerly used as a base by Fatah - the Revolutionary Council, where the remains of Alec Collett and another body were found, and by investigating whether this site contains remains belonging to other victims of the 1975-1990 civil war;
- Exhuming the human remains found in these and other mass graves in accordance with international standards, in particular the UN Model Protocol for Disinterment and Analysis of Skeletal Remains, which provides detailed guidelines for governments to follow when exhuming human remains;
- Setting up a DNA database to eventually identify human remains and to allow many families of victims of abductions and enforced disappearances to finally know the fate of their loved ones.
Situation of migrant domestic workers
• To ensure effective protection to women migrant domestic workers by:
- Introducing appropriate amendments to the labour law to improve labor standards and enforcement mechanisms in accordance with international standards;
- Setting up the necessary inspection mechanisms to prevent abuse, ensure regular payment of wages and decent working conditions for migrant domestic workers.
Torture and other ill-treatment
• To take immediate measures to prevent torture by:
- Expediting the establishment of a robust and independent national mechanism which would have access to all places of detention in Lebanon;
- Amending articles in the Penal Code to criminalize all forms of torture, regardless of its objective, and to provide for penalties appropriate to the grave nature of the crime;
- Ensuring that all allegations of torture or other ill-treatment are effectively and promptly investigated by an independent and impartial body, and those responsible for torture or other ill-treatment are brought to justice in fair trials and without recourse to the death penalty;
- Ensuring that confessions extracted under torture are not used as evidence in courts.
The death penalty
• To take immediate measures leading to abolishing capital punishment by:
- Immediately establishing a moratorium on executions with a view to abolishing the death penalty as provided by UN General Assembly resolution 62/149, adopted on 18 December 2007, and resolution 63/168, adopted on 18 December 2008;
- Commuting without delay all death sentences to terms of imprisonment.