In the context of the UPR, Amnesty International makes the following recommendations to Japan
Establishment of a national human rights institution:
• To ensure that any bill submitted to the Japanese Diet (parliament) for the creation of a national human rights institution fully reflects the Paris Principles and allows for the creation of an independent, impartial and credible institution to effectively uphold human rights of all individuals in Japan.
Abolition of the death penalty:
• To introduce a formal moratorium on executions as a first step toward the abolition of the death penalty, to commute all death sentences to terms of imprisonment, and to ratify the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights aimed at abolishing the death penalty.
The Daiyo Kangoku detention system:
• To reform the daiyo kangoku system of detention to bring it into line with international standards, including by implementing safeguards such as electronic recordings of the entire interrogation process, and ensuring that detainees are not questioned without the presence of a lawyer and have prompt and unhindered access to legal counsel.
Justice for the survivors of Japan’s military sexual slavery system:
• To accept full responsibility and to issue an unequivocal apology for the military sexual slavery system in a manner that is acceptable to the majority of the survivors and that publicly acknowledges the harm suffered by these women and seeks to restore their dignity, including by providing adequate compensation.
Refugees and asylum seekers:
• To ensure that the refugee status determination process is conducted in a fair, effective and transparent manner in line with international law and standards, including the International Convention on the Status of Refugees;
• To end indefinite detention of migrants and asylum seekers;
• To ensure that detention of migrants and asylum-seekers is only used as a last resort and only when the authorities can demonstrate that it is necessary, proportionate and grounded in law, that alternatives will not be effective, and that there is an objective risk of the person absconding.
Discrimination and racism:
• To define discrimination in national legislation in line with the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, and to prohibit all forms of direct and indirect discrimination, including on the basis of age, gender, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity or nationality.