Documento - Nuestro mundo - nuestros derechos: Conferencia Mundial sobre Derechos Humanos Naciones Unidas (14-25 junio 1993)



CHADIrène Rémadji



Irène Rémadji was two-and-a-half years old when, while being carried on her mother's back, soldiers shot and killed her mother, Yogueade Augustine, in the Walia district of N'Djaména in February 1992. Irène's young mother had just arrived in N'Djaména on her way to visit her sister, when the lorry she was in was stopped by soldiers. Passengers were ordered off the lorry at gunpoint and then fired on without provocation.


Soldiers stopped civilians from rescuing Irène Rémadji. Her mother's body was taken to the morgue with Irène still tied to her back. The little girl survived the attack, although wounded by bullets in the chest and thigh. Eventually it was realized that the child was still alive and she was untied from her mother's body, but she remained in police custody

without treatment for her wounds, or anything to eat, until the following day Irène Rémadji

when she was handed over to relatives.


It appears that the passengers in the lorry were targeted because of their ethnic origin. They came from southern Chad and were caught up in a round of reprisal killings following clashes between an insurgent group of rebel soldiers belonging to the Comité de sursaut national pour la paix et la démocratie (CSNPD), Committee for the Revitalization of Peace and Democracy, and government troops, which broke out in N'Djaména on 21 February. The insurgents reportedly attacked a police station in Chagoua district. After the attack, dozens of people were killed indiscriminately by the security forces. Most of the victims were unarmed civilians from southern Chad who were not involved in the attacks or clashes. Thirty-eight bodies were fished out of the river Chari on the outskirts of the capital and another seven were later found in the bush.








To Amnesty International's knowledge, there has been no official inquiry into the killings of the lorry passengers in Walia district or into related killings of Chadian civilians from the south, despite appeals from Chadians and non-Chadians alike (including the US Assistant Secretary of State for Africa who was visiting Chad at the time). Following two other clashes between the CSNPD and government troops in southern Chad in August 1992 and January 1993, at least 200 unarmed civilians were killed by government troops in reprisal attacks.


Please send appeals to the President:Copies to:


Son Excellence Delegation to the UN World Conference

Monsieur le Colonel Idriss Déby on Human Rights

Président de la Républiquec/o Embassy of the Republic of Chad

Présidence de la RépubliqueBasteistraße 80

N'DjaménaD - 5300 Bonn 2

République du TchadFederal Republic of Germany






●deploring the killing of Yogueade Augustine, a civilian shot dead by soldiers in February 1992, and expressing grave concern for the treatment of Irène Rémadji, her young daughter


●stressing the horror of the incident given Irène's age and the extremely traumatic situation that she had to endure


●deploring the victimization of Chadian citizens simply because of their ethnic origin


●calling on the government to initiate a prompt, independent and impartial inquiry into this incident, to ensure that those found responsible are brought to justice and that the families of those killed are compensated


●urging the Chadian authorities to issue orders to all members of the security forces -and to ensure their adherence to them - not to use violence against unarmed civilians or captured combatants who do not pose a threat to life, to treat them humanely and refrain in all cases from killing or injuring such people.


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to the diplomatic representatives of Chad in your country.





SOUTH AFRICAJohannes Maisha "Stanza" Bopape


In January 1993 the hopes of the family of "disappeared" community activist, Johannes Maisha "Stanza" Bopape, were dramatically raised when newspapers published the claims of a former police officer, John Botumile Mokaleng, who alleged that he had knowledge of secret graves where Stanza Bopape and other murdered detainees were buried. Stanza Bopape, from Pretoria's Mamelodi township, "disappeared" several days after he and a colleague had been arrested by the security police on 9 June 1988. Despite his family's repeated public appeals for information, no trace of the activist had been found. Although the claims of secret graves have not to date been corroborated, John Mokaleng's allegations heightened public concern that no proper investigation had ever been conducted by the authorities into Stanza Bopape's"Stanza" Bopape

"disappearance".


Stanza Bopape was aged 28 at the time of his arrest. He was General Secretary of the local black Civic Association in Mamelodi Township near Pretoria and a staff member of the Community Resource and Information Centre (CRIC) in Johannesburg. CRIC had been the target of arson attacks and members of its staff were detained for political reasons at various times during the 1980s.


Throughout the past four-and-a-half years, the police have maintained that Stanza Bopape escaped from their custody while several police officers were transporting him on the night of 12 June 1988 from Johannesburg to Vereeniging. They have failed to explain how Stanza Bopape managed to unshackle himself from handcuffs and leg irons or why they told Stanza Bopape's lawyer on 17 June 1988 that he was still in custody, subsequently announcing that he "escaped" on 12 June. There have been no results of the "intensive investigation" promised by South Africa's Minister of Law and Order in June 1990. The government has refused to name the police officers who were responsible for interrogating and guarding Stanza Bopape.











In January 1993, in the context of renewed publicity, Stanza Bopape's friend and fellow detainee, Bheki Nkosi, made public a statement he had sworn to in 1989 in which he described being told by his interrogators and torturers in June 1988 that they had shot and killed Stanza Bopape. Also in January 1993 an independent officer, established under the terms of the 1991 National Peace Accord to investigate complaints against the police, has now initiated a new investigation into the case.



Please send appeals to the President:Copies to:


F.W. de KlerkDelegation to the UN World Conference State President on Human Rights

State President's OfficeEmbassy of the Republic of South Africa

Private Bag X83Sandgasse 33, 1190 Vienna

Pretoria 0001Austria

South Africa

Tel.: +43 222 32 64 93

Fax: +43 222 32 64 93 51

Telex: +43 222 116 671 saleg a


Telegram: President De Klerk, Pretoria,

South Africa

Fax: +27 12 323 3982

Telex: 321695 SLIB SA; 321890 PRES SA





●urging the government to conduct a full, public, judicial inquiry into the "disappearance" of Stanza Bopape and that those who may be found responsible for his death be brought to justice.




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to the diplomatic representatives of South Africa in your country.


TOGOAt least 19 people killed by the security forces in a peaceful demonstration in Lomé including: Mr Abentey, Calice Adjogblé, Kossi Akakpo, Adeoyor Arioundele, Kokou Blitti, Komlan Olivier Dansou, Fataou Djibril, Innocent Doh, Akuele Doumassi (female), Papa Gbonfou, Kerim Issifou, Esther Kassekpo (female), Hospice Kunugna, Late Donne Lawson, Claude Senah, and Kokou Guy Tokpli Tete.

















5 victi

ms of extrajudicial execution by members of the

security forces during a peaceful demonstration in Lomé on 25 January 1993


The 16 people named above are believed to be among at least 19 people killed during a peaceful demonstration in the capital, Lomé, on 25 January 1993. They were killed when the Togolese security forces opened fire on peaceful demonstrators without warning. Amnesty International has also received the names of over 50 people injured, mostly by live ammunition. No investigation has been announced into the killings of the demonstrators and Amnesty International fears that the security forces continue to be allowed to act with impunity. The extrajudicial executions of at least 20 people, mainly military personnel, in March 1993 also remain uninvestigated and unpunished.


The opposition had organized the demonstration to show their support for an initiative by the French and German governments to try to resolve the political deadlock between President Gnassingbé Eyadéma, the transitional government, and the Haut Conseil de la République (HCR), the transitional parliamentary body. The demonstrators began to gather in front of the HCR building, where the HCR, the French Minister for Cooperation and the German Minister of State for Foreign Affairs were to meet. The Togolese security forces, which included units of the paramilitary police force (Gendarmerie), the army and the anti-riot brigade (brigade anti émeute), ordered the demonstrators to move to the nearby Place de la Libération but then opened fire, apparently without warning, killing at least 19 demonstrators and wounding more than 50 others. Journalists and the French and German Ministers went to the hospital morgue and saw the bodies of demonstrators who had been killed. In a press interview, the visiting ministers called for an independent investigation and said they had advised

President Gnassingbé Eyadéma to return the army to the barracks to stop it interfering in the political domain.


The Togolese Minister of the Interior subsequently issued a statement saying that twelve people had been killed, including one police officer, Koffi Dolou, apparently killed by a stray bullet from a colleague. He claimed the security forces fired in the air after one of their colleagues was attacked by demonstrators. However, eye-witnesses have reported a quite different version of the events, confirming that the security forces opened fire directly on demonstrators without warning.


Amnesty International is urging the Togolese authorities to establish an independent inquiry into these killings, and to ensure that any member of the security forces responsible for unlawful killing is brought to justice. The organization is also urging the authorities to respect the internationally recognized rights to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly.


Please send appeals to the President:Copies to:


Son Excellence Monsieur le GénéralDelegation to the UN World Gnassingbé Eyadéma Conference on Human Rights

Président de la RépubliqueEmbassy of the Republic of Togo Palais présidentielBeethovenalle 13, D-5300 Bonn 2

Avenue de la MarinaFederal Republic of Germany

Lomé

Togo Tel.: +49 228 060/228/35 50 91-93

Fax: +49 228 310 39 35

Telex: +49 228 841/885 595


Telegrams: Président de la République, Lomé, Togo

Telexes: 5319; 5419; 5201 TMS THG

Faxes: + 228 21 18 97, + 228 21 32 04

Salutation: Monsieur le Président / Dear President


● expressing concern at the reported killing of at least 19 demonstrators on 25 January 1993 by the security forces;


● calling for an independent inquiry into deaths during the demonstration on 25 January 1993 with a view to bringing to justice any member of the security forces responsible for an unlawful killing;


●urging the authorities to ensure that the right to freedom of expression and peaceful assembly is respected;


● calling for an impartial inquiry into the use of firearms and lethal force by the security forces against peaceful demonstrators, in contravention of the UN's Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials (adopted by the 8th UN Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders on 7 September 1990).

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to the diplomatic representatives of Togo in your country.


BRAZILJean Alves da Cunha, aged 13



On 11 November 1992 Jean Alves da Cunha and five other street children were detained by four Comisarios da Justica da Crianca e Adolescente, Justice Officials attached to the Juvenile Court, in Vitoria, capital of Espirito Santo state. They were questioned and released that afternoon. According to the other five street children, the justice officials returned and detained only Jean Alves da Cunha at about 8pm that evening. He was never seen alive again. On the 13 November his body was found dumped on a hill in the city, with two shots in the head, one through his ear. A forensic specialist examining the body has affirmed that he believed it to have been a professional killing.


Thirteen year-old Jean Alves da Cunha lived on the streets of Vitoria. He was a leader in the Movimento Nacional de

Meninos e Meninas da Rua, National

Brazilian street children

Movement of Street Boys and Girls, and

was preparing himself and other child delegates to attend the Movement's Third National Congress in Brasilia 19-22 November 1992. At a preparatory meeting on 6 November Jean made a recording denouncing the difficulties of street children trying to reform themselves and break out of a cycle of crime. In particular he mentioned how police put pressure on them to commit crimes, and share the proceeds of these crimes with them. He expressed fears for his own safety because of having made these allegations.


Amnesty International is increasingly concerned about violence against and killings of street children in large cities in Brazil. Federal Police recorded 4,611 killings of children and adolescents in Brazil between 1988 and 1990. In February 1992 a Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry published its finding on 'The Extermination of Minors' and concluded that the participation of civil and military police in the killings of children and adolescents was "far from exceptional" and that police killings were the third highest cause of homicide of children and adolescents. According to the National Street Boys and Girls Movement there have been 23 killings of children and adolescents in the city of Vitoria (population 256,000) during 1992.









Please send appeals to the State Governor:Copies to:


State Governor:Delegation to the UN World Exmo Sr Governador do Estado Conference on Human Rights

de Espirito Santo Embassy of the Federal Republic of Sr Albuíno Azevedo Brazil

Palácio AnchietaLugeck 1/V/15, 1010 Vienna

Praça João ClimaçãoAustria

29.000 Vitoria, ES, Brazil

Tel.: +43 222 512 06 31-35

Telegrams: Governador Espirito Santo,Fax: +43 222 513 83 74

Vitoria, ES, BrazilTelex: +43 222 111 925

Faxes: + 55 27 222 6030

Telexes: 274050 tgdp br


Salutation: Vossa Excelencia / Your Excellency




● expressing concern at the killing of Jean Alves da Cunha on 12 November 1992 in circumstances suggesting official involvement;


●urging a full and impartial investigation into the killing and that those responsible be brought to justice;


● expressing concern for the physical safety of street children in Vitoria, in the light of their allegations that police have been involved in extortion.




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it to the diplomatic representatives of Brazil in your country.


COLOMBIA Alirio de Jesús Pedraza Becerra


Alirio de Jesús Pedraza Becerra, lawyer and human rights worker, "disappeared" on the night of 4 July 1990 in Bogotá. According to various eye-witnesses, about eight heavily armed men in plain clothes seized Dr. Pedraza at about 10pm as he was leaving a bakery in the "La Campiña" shopping centre in Bogotá's Suba district. The armed men reportedly arrived beforehand in three cars (one was a white Chevrolet Trooper, another a dark Mazda). According to some reports two of the armed men identified themselves to two police agents who then stood by during the abduction of Dr. Pedraza.

Dr. Pedraza reportedly called out his name as he was being pushed into the Mazda.


Dr. Pedraza had just attended a meeting at the Comité de Solidaridad con

los Presos Políticos, (CSPP), Political Alirio de Jesús Pedraza Becerra

Prisoners Solidarity Committee in central

Bogotá. A 40-year-old lawyer and long-standing active member of this human rights organization, Dr. Pedraza was investigating a number of cases of human rights violations attributed to the Colombian armed forces. Dr. Pedraza was representing relatives of peasants killed when troops belonging to the Luciano D'Eluyar Battalion opened fire on hundreds of peasants during a protest march in May 1988 in Llano Caliente, Santander department. Dr. Pedraza had also just been working on behalf of a number of trade unionists detained and tortured by the army in Cali, Valle del Cauca department, in March 1990. The trade unionists were accused of belonging to a guerrilla organization but charges against them were later dropped. According to their testimonies they were tortured while held in the army's III Brigade in Cali. Dr Pedraza also represented victims and their families in a number of other cases of human rights violations by the Colombian army and police.


The "disappearance" of Dr. Alirio Pedraza was immediately denounced to the Procurator General's Office and the Procurator Delegate's Office for Human Rights who initiated an investigation. However, despite the efforts of Dr. Pedraza's family and colleagues to locate him, the Armed Forces and Police authorities continued to deny his detention and his whereabouts remained unknown. A judicial enquiry was also initiated into his "disappearance".




In October 1992 two members of the judicial police (Cuerpo Técnico de la Policía Judicial) were arrested on suspicion of being materially responsible (autores materiales) for the human rights lawyer's abduction. A security guard who witnessed Dr. Pedraza's abduction has reportedly positively identified the two judicial police. However, nearly three years after his "disappearance" Dr Pedraza's whereabouts remain unknown.



Please send appeals to the Attorney General:Copies to:


Dr. Gustavo De GreiffDelegation to the UN World Fiscal General Conference on Human Rights

AA 29855Colombian Embassy

BogotaStadiongasse 6-8, 1010

ColombiaVienna

Austria


Tel.: +43 222 42 42 49,

43 44 46

Fax: +43 222 408 83 03

Telex: +43 222 116 798

emco a



●calling for investigations to be continued until Dr Pedraza's whereabouts are established and all those responsible for his "disappearance" are brought to justice.





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it to the diplomatic representatives of Colombia in your country.



CUBA Yndamiro Restano Díaz




Yndamiro Restano Díaz is President of

the unofficial political group Movimiento de Armonía (MAR), the Harmony Movement. He was arrested on 20 December 1991 in Havana. In May 1992 he was convicted of "rebellion" in connection with his activities as a member of MAR. Amnesty International considers him to be a prisoner of conscience.


MAR advocates a wide range of democratic reforms, including the establishment of a multi-party system and free elections, through peaceful means. However, at the trial, which began on 20 May 1992, the prosecution alleged that MAR intended to change Cuba's political, economic and social structure through acts of civil disobedience and sabotage and attacks on police officers and leading political figures. MAR has consistently Yndamiro Restano Díaz

rejected the use of violence and no

evidence was produced to support allegations that its members were planning to engage in violent activities. During the trial, several prosecution witnesses reportedly retracted incriminating statements they had earlier made against Yndamiro Restano. Yndamiro Restano criticized the proceedings, saying that his "guilt" was assured before the hearing had taken place. He was sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment which he is currently serving in Guanajay Prison.


In 1985 Yndamiro Restano was dismissed from his job as an agriculture

correspondent for a state-run radio station after giving an interview about his political views to a US journalist.
















Please send courteous appeals to the President:Copies to:


Dr. Fidel Castro RuzDelegation to the UN World

President of the Council of State Conference on Human Rights

HavanaEmbassy of the

Cuba Republic of Cuba

Himmelhofgasse 40 a-c



Postfach 36, 1130 Vienna

Austria


●calling for the immediate and unconditional release of

Yndamiro Restano Díaz





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it to the diplomatic representatives of Cuba in your country.

GUATEMALAAgapito Pérez Lucas

Nicolas Mateo

Luis Ruiz

Macario Pu Chivalán



On 1 April 1989 uniformed soldiers with their faces in black camouflage paint kicked down the door of the room where Luis Ruiz and Macario Pu Chivalán were sleeping in an estate in Suchitepéquez department in south-western Guatemala. Six days later, Agapito Pérez Lucas and Nicolás Mateo were abducted from the same estate. In both cases family members were told not to interfere as the men were taken away in their underwear to an unknown destination.


The four men were seasonal farm workers from El Quiché department and members of the Consejo de Comunidades Etnicas "Runujel Junam" (CERJ), Council of Ethnic Communities "We are all equal." CERJ was formed in El Quiché in 1988 and has amongst its objectives the denunciation of human rights violations directed at indigenous groups. Since its formation the group has been the constant target of human rights abuses, including death threats, "disappearances" and extrajudicial execution of many of its members.



Despite government claims that an investigation has been carried out into the abduction and subsequent "disappearance" of Agapito Pérez Lucas, Nicolás Mateo, Luis Ruiz and Macario Pu Chivalán, no news of the men's fate and whereabouts has emerged and they remain "disappeared."




Please send appeals to the President:Copies to:


S.E. Ing. Jorge Serrano ElíasDelegation to the UN World Presidente de la República de Guatemala Conference on Human Rights

Palacio NacionalGuatemalan Embassy

GuatemalaReisnerstraße 20/1/4, 1030 Wien

GuatemalaAustria


Tel.: +43 222 714 35 70

Fax: +43 222 714 35 69



Fax: (502) (2) 537472, 319702



●calling for a full and independent investigation into the "disappearance" of Agapito Pérez Lucas, Nicolás Mateo, Luis Ruiz and Macario Pu Chivalán and for those who are responsible to be brought to justice.





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it to the diplomatic representatives of Guatemala in your country.

USAJohnny Garrett and Ricky Ray Rector



Johnny Garrett, a mentally ill juvenile offender, was executed by lethal injection by the state of Texas, USA on 11 February 1992. He was sentenced to death in September 1982 for the rape and murder of Sister Tadea Benz, a 76 year old white nun. He was 17 years old at the time of the offence. Johnny Garrett had a long history of mental illness, and was severely physically and sexually abused as a child. This information was not made available to the jury at the time of his trial. According to three medical experts who examined Johnny Garrett between 1986 and 1992, he was extremely mentally impaired, chronically psychotic and brain-damaged as the result of several severe head injuries he received as a child. According to reports he suffered from paranoid delusions, including a belief

that the lethal injection used to execute

prisoners in Texas would not kill him.Johnny Garrett


Johnny Garrett's upbringing and home environment were, in the words of the psychologist who examined him in 1988, "one of the most virulent histories of abuse and neglect...I have encountered in over 28 years of practice." According to the psychologist's report, Johnny Garrett was frequently beaten manually and with leather belts by his natural father, and by his step-fathers. If he wet or dirtied the bed his nose was rubbed in excrement. On one occasion, when he would not stop crying, he was put on the burner of a hot stove, and retained the scars from the burns he received.


According to medical reports, Johnny Garrett was raped by a step-father who then hired him to another man for sex. It is also reported that from the age of 14 he was forced to perform bizarre sexual acts and participate in homosexual pornographic films. He was first introduced to alcohol and other drugs by members of his family when he was ten years-old and subsequently indulged in serious substance abuse involving brain-damaging substances, such as paint-thinner and amphetamines.


Johnny Garrett was executed despite appeals for clemency from the convent to which Sister Tadea Benz belonged, from the religious community of Texas and from His Holiness Pope John Paul II. He was the fifth juvenile offender to be executed in the USA since the death penalty was reintroduced in the 1970s. The imposition of the death penalty on minors is in clear contravention of international human rights treaties and standards, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the American Convention on Human Rights. The US Government signed both these treaties in 1977, and ratified the ICCPR in April 1992. However, in ratifying the ICCPR the US Government reserved its rights "subject to its Constitutional constraints" to impose capital punishment on persons below 18 years of age.


Safeguards guaranteeing protection of the rights of those facing the death penalty, adopted by the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) in 1984, prohibit the execution of offenders aged under 18 at the time of the crime, and further provide that "Capital punishment may only be carried out ... after legal process which gives all possible safeguards to ensure a fair trial..."


Ricky Rector, black, was executed by the state of Arkansas on 24 January 1992. He was convicted in 1982 of the murder of Bob Martin, a white police officer, in November 1981. After shooting Bob Martin, Rector attempted to take his own life by shooting himself in the head. The bullet wound, and subsequent surgery to remove the bullet from Rector's head resulted in a frontal lobotomy (the loss of a three-inch section of his brain), leaving him mentally impaired. He suffered memory loss and medical examinations revealed him to be severely limited in his mental capacity. He was found to be unable to recognize or communicate facts, and thus unable to assist his attorneys in his defence.

Ricky Rector's execution was carried out in a manner which demonstrated the extreme cruelty of the death penalty. Witnesses to the execution reported hearing moans or outbursts coming from the execution chamber as technicians searched for almost an hour to find suitable veins in which to inject the lethal chemicals. Ricky Rector was apparently aware of the problem and helped the execution team in their task. In an article in one of the state newspapers, the Arkansas Democrat Gazette, on January 26 1992, John Byus, the administrator of medical and dental services for the Arkansas Department of Correction said, "We weren't just sticking him every minute. We were looking for a new vein. We kept thinking the next one would be it...We thought we had it, but we didn't, that's unusual, but it happens. He had spindly veins that collapsed easily. We searched. We were lucky to find a vein at all."


While many US politicians privately accept that the death penalty does not serve justice in the USA, they support it publicly to project an image of being tough on crime. President Bill Clinton, who was Governor of Arkansas at the time of the execution of Ricky Ray Rector, and refused all pleas for clemency, publicly supported the death penalty as part of his Presidential electoral campaign.


Amnesty International opposes the death penalty unconditionally, believing it to be the ultimate cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment and a violation of the right to life, as enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments. In the organization's view, the death penalty is inherently unjust and arbitrary, often imposed disproportionately against the poor and the disadvantaged, and, even with the most stringent judicial safeguards, may be imposed on an innocent person; it is an act of violence, and violence tends to provoke violence. In the United States, Amnesty International has found that the death penalty is both arbitrary and discriminatory in its application: studies have consistently shown that those convicted of murdering white victims are far more likely to be sentenced to death than other offenders. It is common for black defendants accused of capital crimes in some states to be convicted by all-white juries from which prosecutors have deliberately excluded prospective jurors.


Detailed research in different countries has produced no convincing evidence that the death penalty deters crime more effectively than other punishments. Although there is strong public support for the death penalty in the USA, several polls indicate that this is not unqualified. Some recent polls suggest that public support for the death penalty might decrease if other penalties were shown to be equally effective.


Appeals should be sent to the President:Copies to:


President Bill ClintonDelegation to the UN World

White House Conference on Human Rights

Washington DC, 20500USA Embassy

USABoltzmanngasse 16, 1090 Vienna

Austria


Tel.: +43 222 313 39

Fax: +43 222 310 06 82

Telex: +43 222 114 106



●urging him to take the lead in calling for the abolition of the death penalty in the USA which is a violation of the right to life;


●urging him to take immediate steps to halt the execution of juvenile offenders and those suffering from mental illness;


●urging President Clinton to take into account the recommendation of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation which recommended in August 1992 that the death penalty be abolished for mentally retarded prisoners. (The Committee was created in 1966 as a standing committee in the Department of Health and Human Services).




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it to the diplomatic representatives of the USA in your country.


CHINAJampel Changchub



Jampel Changchub, a Tibetan Buddhist monk at Drepung monastery near Lhasa, was arrested in April 1989 and sentenced in November 1989 to 19 years' imprisonment, the longest sentence against a prisoner of conscience imposed in recent years in Tibet.


Jampel Changchub, aged about 30, was described as a "principal member" of a "counter-revolutionary organization" which produced "reactionary literature" and "venomously slandered China's socialist system characterized by the people's democratic dictatorship". He was also accused of "collecting information and passing it to an enemy". Among the "reactionary literature" that the Group was accused of printing, was a Tibetan translation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.Jampel Changchub


These accusations against Jampel Changchub were read out at a mass sentencing rally held on 30 November 1991 (mass sentencing rallies are meetings at which accusations against prisoners and their sentences, decided beforehand, are read out. Prisoners displayed at these rallies have no effective opportunity to present a defence and must generally observe a humble appearance implying that they admit guilt on the charges imputed to them.


Eight other monks from Drepung monastery received prison sentences of five to 17 years for allegedly taking part in the activities of the group allegedly led by Ngawang Phulchung.


Jampel Changchub had taken part on 27 September 1987 in a peaceful

demonstration in favour of Tibetan independence from China and was detained for four months as a result, along with 20 other Drepung monks. That demonstration marked the beginning of a wave of protests by Tibetans advocating independence from China. The group to which Jampel Changchub allegedly belonged was formed in January 1989, according to a broadcast by the official Lhasa Radio.


Jampel Changchub is serving his sentence in Drapchi Prison in Lhasa. Little information is available about his conditions of detention because of strict official controls on information. There were reports, however, that on 26 April 1991, after being severely beaten, Jampel Changchub, and 16 other prisoners, most of them monks, were put in solitary confinement following a series of incidents involving other political prisoners in Drapchi Prison. Several of the prisoners reportedly required medical treatment for head wounds and were reported to have been handcuffed and shackled. Unofficial sources reported that the isolation cells are just large enough to lie down in and are kept in total darkness. Jampel Changchub was reportedly released from solitary confinement after about six weeks.


Amnesty International is concerned that Jampel Changchub is a prisoner of conscience, imprisoned solely on account of his peaceful advocacy of political views and exercising of his right to freedom of association and information. Amnesty International is calling for their immediate and unconditional release. The organization is also concerned at reports that they have been held in solitary confinement in conditions which may amount to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.



Please send appeals to:Copies to:


Li Peng ZongliDelegation to the UN World Conference

Guowuyuanon Human Rights

9 Xihuangchenggen BeijieEmbassy of the Peoples' Republic of China

Beijing 100032Metternichgasse 4, 1030 Vienna

People's Republic of ChinaAustria


Tel.: +43 222 714 31 49

Fax: +43 222 713 68 16

Telex: +43 222 135 794



●urging the immediate and unconditional release of Jampel Changchub;


●expressing concern at reports that Jampel Changchub has been held in solitary confinement in Drapchi Prison in conditions which may amount to torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.




You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of China in your country.


INDIAJairam Singh and Manoj Singh


Jairam Singh, a 50-year-old labourer, died in the custody of Patel Nagar police, Delhi, on 19 August 1991. The death was the seventh in police custody in Delhi in the first eight months of 1991.


Jairam Singh and his 12-year-old son, Manoj, were detained on 18 August 1991 after Manoj allegedly stole a purse at a marriage ceremony. Jairam Singh had done no more than accompany his son to the police station. No case was registered against him. The police later claimed that Manoj confessed to the crime, but the family alleged that the confession was forced.


Manoj and his father were both tortured. Later that day several other family members, including Jairam Singh's

wife, were also briefly detained and

beaten. They claim that Jairam Singh's hands were tied behind his back and Manoj Singh (12-year old)

that he was beaten mercilessly. In

the early hours of 19 August Jairam Singh complained of stomach pains and problems with urinating. He was taken by the police to the Khera nursing home. At 4 am, after receiving treatment, he was declared to be "in a position to leave". A medical note reportedly stated that he had a clear chest and was conscious. Ten minutes later he collapsed and died.


The People's Union for Democratic Rights (PUDR) released a report on the death in which they condemned the "appalling negligence of the doctors" in what was a case "if not of blatant collusion at least of fatal callousness". They also met Manoj three days after the incident and noted that his body was still swollen from beatings and bruised with lathi (truncheon) marks.


Many deaths in police custody go largely unnoticed. Jairam's death, however, was brought to public attention by local protest and the work of the PUDR. The story of Jairam Singh's death was carried by national newspapers and discussed in the Lok Sabha (Parliament) on 21 August 1991. The Minister of State for Home Affairs declared that the government was determined to take action against "those exceeding or abusing their powers" and described the incident as "ghastly". The Delhi Police Commissioner, Arun Bhagat, acknowledged that "maltreatment" had occurred. Three policemen were suspended and a case of murder and wrongful confinement was registered. On 21 August the arrest of the three suspended policemen was ordered and one further policeman was arrested in September. The Station House Officer at Patel Nagar police station was transferred. The post-mortem report stated that death was due to the cumulative effect of injuries. On 5 December four policemen were charged with the murder of Jairam Singh, the sub-divisional magistrate who investigated the death said that" there is no doubt Jairam Singh was severly beaten up by four or five policemen".


Two inquiries were launched into the death, one by a magistrate and one by the crime branch of Delhi police. Both inquiries found the police to be responsible for the death of Jairam Singh. However, as yet, no police officials are known to have been brought to justice and no compensation is known to have been paid.



Please send appeals to theCopies to:

Minister of Home Affairs:


Mr S.B Chavan Delegation to the UN World

Minister of Home Affairs Conference on Human Rights

Ministry of Home AffairsIndian Embassy

North BlockKärtner Ring 2, 1015-Vienna

New Delhi 110 001Austria


Tel.: +43 222 505 86 66-69

Fax: +43 222 505 92 19

Telex: +43 222 113 721


●Expressing concern about the death of Jairam Singh in custody of the Delhi police (Please cite his full name and the date and place of the incident described), and about the reported torture of his 12-year-old son Manoj. Saying that the post-mortem report corroborates allegations that Jairam Singh was tortured to death and also that two inquiries found the police to have been responsible for the death.


●Welcoming the statement made by the Minister of State for Home Affairs that the government will take action against "those exceeding or abusing their powers" and noting reports that four policemen have been charged with the death of Jairam Singh. Asking when the trial will take place. Saying that Amnesty International knows of no instances in which police officials in Delhi have been tried and convicted for such crimes.


●Welcoming the determination to eradicate torture expressed by various government and Delhi Police officials and asking about the work of the Central Checking Team established by the Delhi Police Commissioner in 1989 to make surprise visits to police stations.


●Urging the authorities to implement legal safeguards against custodial violence by ensuring that all detainees are brought before a magistrate within 24 hours, allowed immediate access to legal advice and a medical examination by an independent doctor.



You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of India in your country.


INDONESIADrs Adnan Beuransyah





















Drs Adnan Beuransyah


Drs Adnan Beuransyah, a journalist with the paper Serambi Indonesia, was brought to trial in March 1991. At his trial he described in some detail the torture inflicted upon him during interrogation by regional military officials in August 1990. In particular he recounted that he was forced to sign an interrogation deposition:


"...My hair and my nose were burned with cigarette butts. I was given electric shocks on my feet, genitals and ears until I fainted...I was ordered to sit on a long bench facing the interrogator. I was still blindfolded and the wire for electric shocks was still wound around my big toes. If I said anything they didn't like they'd turn on the current. This went on until about 8am, meaning I was tortured for about eight continuous hours.


On the third night I was tortured again...My body was bruised and bloodied and I had been beaten and kicked so much that I coughed up blood and there was blood in my urine...It continued like this until I signed the interrogation deposition."


Drs Adnan Beuransyah told the court that, during a pre-trial examination by the state prosecutor, he attempted to retract the deposition signed under torture and to deny any association with Aceh Merdeka. However, the prosecutor reportedly refused to permit the retraction and threatened the defendant with return to the detention centre where he had been tortured. Drs Adnan Beuransyah asserted that the deposition presented to the court was virtually identical to that extracted under torture. Drs Adnan Beuransyah was sentenced to eight years' imprisonment in May 1991. The sentence was increased on appeal to nine years.


In the past year the Indonesian Government has taken a number of unprecedented initiatives which appear to signal a positive shift in its attitude toward human rights. Yet the grim factual record of human rights practice in 1992 tells a different story. Political killing, "disappearance", torture, arbitrary detention, political imprisonment and the use of the death penalty have continued without significant interruption, despite intermittent changes in the level and nature of violations reported in particular regions.



The gravest violations of human rights reported to Amnesty International in the past year have occurred in the context of counter-insurgency operations in East Timor and Aceh, where the government has continued to face both peaceful and armed opposition to its rule. In these areas, military authorities have been free to employ virtually any means - including unlawful execution, "disappearance", arbitrary detention and torture - in the interest of maintaining national security, and destroying what the government calls Gerakan Pengacau Keamanan (Security Disruptors Movements).


The pattern of grave violations in Aceh, where an armed secessionist movement, Aceh Merdeka, has been active since early 1989, is perhaps less well known than the situation in East Timor. Aceh Merdeka is reported to have committed some abuses against the civilian population; Amnesty International condemns these unreservedly. However, such abuses can in no way justify human rights violations by government forces. An estimated 2,000 civilians, including children and the very elderly, have been unlawfully killed, sometimes in public executions by members of the official Indonesian security forces; hundreds, possibly thousands of villagers have been arbitrarily arrested on the merest suspicion of supporting Aceh Merdeka; many of those detained have been held incommunicado for long periods, and subjected to ill-treatment and torture to extract confessions or political intelligence; and more than 50 have been sentenced to lengthy prison sentences after unfair trials, including many who neither used nor advocated violence.


Please send appeals to: Copies to:


Minister of Justice:Delegation to the UN World Conference

Lt. Ismail Salenon Human Rights

Menteri Keha KimanEmbassy of the Republic of Indonesia

JI Rasuna Said Kav. 6-7Gustav-Tschernak-Gasse 5-7, 1180 Vienna

KuninganAustria

Jakarta Selatan

IndonesiaTel.: +43 222 34 25 34-35

Fax: +43 222 34 45 51

Telex: +43 222 75 579


●calling for the immediate and unconditional release of Drs Adnan Beuransyah;


●calling for a full and independent investigation of his allegations of torture and that those responsible be brought to justice.


You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of Indonesia in your country.


MYANMAR (BURMA)Aung San Suu Kyi



Daw1Aung San Suu Kyi is perhaps one of the most well-known women political activists in the world today. For her courageous non-violent opposition to the repressive military regime governing her country and her defence of human rights, Daw Aung San Suu Kyi was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in December 1991. As a result of the supposed threat which Daw Aung San Suu Kyi poses to state security, she has been held under house arrest by the Myanmar authorities since July 1989.


Daw Aung San Suu Kyi - the daughter of Aung San, revered as the father of Burmese independence - returned to Burma in 1988 to look after her dying mother, and soon became involved in the democracy movement. In September 1988 she helped to form the National

League for Democracy (NLD). The NLD isAung San Suu Kyi

the largest legally-recognised political

party in Myanmar. It won more than 80% of the seats in the May 1990 elections. However, it is the military authorities, who staged a coup in September 1988, who still hold power, and not the NLD. Before and during the military coup, hundreds of peaceful demonstrators were killed by security forces. Martial Law introduced shortly after the coup included laws banning "political gatherings".


Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, considered a prisoner of conscience by Amnesty International since her arrest in July 1989, is detained under the administrative detention provisions of the 1975 State Protection Law, which concerns supposed threats to state security. She has now been held under house arrest for over three years. In August 1991 the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) amended the 1975 State Protection Law to extend the time people can be detained without trial from three years to five years. As Daw Aung San Suu Kyi is held under the administrative detention provisions of this law, this means that she can now be detained for five years without trial.


Until recently she has been detained at her home in Yangon (Rangoon) in complete isolation from her family and the outside world. Since April 1992 she has been allowed two visits from her husband and two sons - the first in over two years. She has been allowed no contact with other people. Despite the announcement by the SLORC in April 1992 that they will release all political prisoners who are not deemed a threat to national security, there is no indication that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi will also be released.


Amnesty International is gravely concerned about the well-being of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. Recent information received by the organization indicates that she continues to be held in almost complete isolation and that her health may seriously deteriorate. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has consistently refused to accept food and other necessities from the authorities, and Amnesty International understands her own resources are now running out. She has been refused access to the doctor of her choice, in contravention of international standards.




Please send appeals to:Copies to:


General Than ShweDelegation to the UN World Conference

Chairman on Human Rights

State Law and Order Embassy of the Union of Myanmar

Restoration CouncilSchumannstraße 112, D-5300 Bonn 1

Signal Pagoda RoadFederal Republic of Germany

Yangonc/o Ministry of Defence

Union of Myanmar

Tel.: +43 222 060/228/21 00 91

Salutation: Dear GeneralFax: +43 222 060/228/21 93 16

Telex: +43 222 841/8 869 560 myan d




●calling for the immediate and unconditional release of

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi;


●expressing concern about her health and urging that she be granted free access to a doctor of her choice;




You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of Myanmar in your country.


FRANCE Nzungu Nkanza


Nzungu Nkanza is a 26-year-old man of Zairian nationality who was born in Kinshasa and who is currently living in Paris. He has made a statement of complaint through his lawyer to the police authorities that he was physically ill-treated by several police officers during the night of 11/12 January 1993, following a police identity check.


According to his statement, Nzungu Nkanza was approached at around 11pm on 11 January 1993 by approximately 15 uniformed police officers on a platform of the Crimée métro station in Paris. They ordered him to show his identity papers. He gave his name and other details and then explained that he did not have a residence permit for France but that he had made an

application which was currently being processed.

Nzungu Nkanza


Nzungu Nkanza claimed that before he had an opportunity to explain further he was handcuffed and thrown to the ground. He then alleged that he was beaten so badly by two policemen that he lost consciousness.


Nzungu Nkanza claimed that during his first four hours in police custody the arresting officers repeatedly beat him, stamped and spat on him and subjected him to racial insults. During the morning of 12 January, after he had asked to see a doctor, the police took him to hospital. At approximately 11am he was examined by a doctor who noted that Nzungu Nkanza was suffering from widespread pain all over his body; he also recorded multiple bruising and swelling to his body. Nzungu Nkanza's right foot was x-rayed and he was prescribed a pain-killing drug. He was then returned to the police headquarters.


Nzungu Nkanza was released without charge in the afternoon of 12 January 1993. On 13 January Nzungu Nkanza sought a further medical examination and was issued with a medical certificate recording bruising to his chest, hands and right leg. The doctor also noted that his right knee was swollen, that there were traces of blood in his nose, that he was suffering from pain in his spine and that he had problems with his speech.


On 19 January Nzungu Nkanza made a formal written complaint about his allegations of ill-treatment to the Inspection générale des services (IGS), the section within the Ministry of the Interior responsible for investigating internally complaints against the police.



Amnesty International is seriously concerned by these allegations of ill-treatment.




Please send appeals to the Copies to:

French Minister of Justice:


Monsieur Pierre Méhaignerie Delegation to the UN World

Garde des Sceaux Conference on Human Rights

Ministre de la JusticeFrench Embassy

Ministère de la JusticeTechnikerstr. 2, 1040 Vienna

13 Place VendômeAustria

75042 PARIS

FranceTel.: +43 222 505 47 47

Fax: +43 222 505 63 92 61

Telex: +43 222 131 333




●expressing grave concern about the alleged physical ill-treatment of Nzunga Nkanza by the French police;


●stating that you understand that he has made a formal complaint of ill-treatment to the police authorities;


●calling for a thorough and impartial investigation of his allegations and for those responsible to be brought to justice.



Please send copies of any replies to the Europe Research Department in the International Secretariat.




You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of France in your country.

TURKEYSelahattin Simsek























Selahattin Simsek


Selahattin Simsek is a 39-year-old Kurdish school teacher who has been in prison for more than 12 years. Following a grossly unfair trial in a military court, he was convicted of robbery and killing a policeman on behalf of the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK). He has consistently denied any involvement in these crimes.


Selahattin Simsek said that during his interrogation, police officers tortured him for 23 consecutive days, but he confessed to nothing more than “a certain sympathy” for the PKK. “I was stripped naked and suspended on a crucifix,” he said. “One electric cable was fixed to the small finger of my right hand and the other cable was moved over various parts of my body. This torture was repeated three times a day... I was also suspended by my feet and by my wrists while they were tied behind my back. I was repeatedly threatened with rape and at one stage they tried

to make a fellow detainee rape me. He was severely beaten when he refused." During interrogation Selahattin Simsek had to be treated in hospital as a result of the torture inflicted upon him.


During a two-year trial, which involved more than 500 defendants, Selahattin Simsek was able to see his lawyer only once. None of the prosecution witnesses was able to identify him in court, and his conviction was based on contradictory evidence, mainly statements extracted by torture from his fellow defendants. He did not receive important legal documents relating to his case — including the testimony of witnesses — until three years after the trial ended. He was sentenced to death in 1983, although the sentence was commuted to a 20-year prison term in 1991. He is currently being held in Bursa Special Type Prison and has up to eight more years to serve.





Please send appeals to theCopies to:

Minister of Justice:


Mr Seyfi OktayDelegation to the UN World

Minister of Justice Conference on Human Rights

Adalet BakanligiTurkish Embassy

06659 AnkaraPrinz-Eugen-Straße 40

Turkey1040 Vienna

Austria

Fax: +90 4 425 4066

Tel.: +43 222 505 55 59

Fax: +43 222 505 36 60

Telex: +43 222 131 927



●expressing grave concern that Selahattin Simsek's trial did not meet with internationally recognised standards for a fair trial;


●calling for a review of Selahattin Simsek's case;


●calling for a full and independent investigation into the allegations of torture, the results of which should be made public.





You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of Turkey in your country.

IRAQAl-Sayyid Hassan al-Qubanji




Al-Sayyid Hassan al-Qubanji, an 82-year-old Shi'a Muslim and well-known mosque preacher in southern Iraq, is married and has 21 children. He "disappeared" after he was arrested in late March or early April 1991 in the al-Huwaish district of al-Najaf. His present whereabouts are not known.


Iraqi military, intelligence and security personnel carried out massacres, torture and widespread and arbitrary detentions during a mass uprising, which began on 1 March 1991 in southern Iraq and spread to the Kurdish regions of the north before being crushed a month later. Many of the victims were unarmed civilians, including women and children. In the al-Najaf area, religious scholars and students of religion were specifically targeted.

Al-Sayyid Hassan al-Qubanji



Amnesty International has the names of 106 religious scholars and students of religion arrested in al-Najaf in March and April 1991, including Shi'a Muslims from Iraq, Iran and other countries. Their fate and whereabouts have remained unknown.


The Iraqi government has failed to respond to Amnesty International's

appeals for information on these detainees; the organization fears they may have been tortured or executed.


In his report of 18 February 1992 to the Commission on Human Rights, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Iraq stated that the Government of Iraq has been waging a concerted attack against the Shi'a clergy at al-Najaf and that many are now under arrest or "disappeared".














Please send appeals to the President:


His Excellency President Saddam Hussain

c/o His Excellency Dr Rahim Abdul al-Kutal

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Iraq

Johannesgasse 26

1010 Vienna

Austria



●expressing concern about the "disappearance" of Shi'a clergy arrested in al-Najaf;


●insisting that the whereabouts of Al-Sayyid Hassan al-Qubanji be revealed, and that he be given access to his relatives and medical and legal experts;


●urging that he is immediately and unconditionally released unless he is to be charged with a recognizably criminal offence and given a prompt and fair trial.




You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of Iraq in your country.


KUWAITIBTISAM BERTO SULAIMAN AL-DAKHIL





Ibtisam Berto Sulaiman al-Dakhil, a 35-year old woman journalist, worked for the Kuwaiti newspaper al-Qabas, which was closed down by the Iraqi authorities and replaced by al-Nida' shortly after the invasion of Kuwait in August 1990. It was the only newspaper allowed to publish during the occupation. Following the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait in February 1991, she was among hundreds of people arrested by the Kuwaiti armed forces, police and armed civilians on suspicion of "collaborating with the enemy".





















Al-Qabas - Kuwaiti newspaper




The Kuwaiti authorities established a Martial Law Court to try people suspected of having "collaborated" with the Iraqi occupation forces. Ibtisam al-Dakhil was among some 100 people who were tried and convicted before this court between 19 May and 20 June 1991. She denied all charges against her in court. She was sentenced to death after an unfair trial; her sentence was later commuted to life imprisonment by the Amir of Kuwait. She is currently serving her sentence in Kuwait Central Prison.










Amnesty International believes that the proceedings at the Martial Law Court fell far short of international standards for fair trial. Lawyers were often either denied access to defendants or given insufficient time to prepare their defence, and many defendants were not permitted to see the evidence against them or to cross-examine prosecution witnesses. Some defendants were convicted solely on the basis of "confessions" reportedly extracted under torture. None has been permitted the right of appeal. Testimonies from former detainees, often supported by medical evidence, indicate that torture was routine and widespread in pre-trial detention, particularly during the period of martial law.


Please send courteous letters expressing concern that the Martial Law Court procedures did not meet minimum standards for fair trial as set out in international instruments, and urge the authorities to set up a judicial review of the cases of Ibtisam Berto Sulaiman al-Dakhil and all others sentenced by the Martial Law Court.


Please send appeals to the Public Prosecutor:Copies to:


Muhammad 'Abd al-Hay al-BannayDelegation to the UN World

Public Prosecutor Conference on Human Rights Ministry of Justice and Legal AffairsKuwait Embassy

Al-Safat Universitätsstr. 5, 1010

Kuwait CityVienna

Austria


Tel.: +43 222 42 56 46

Fax: +43 222 408 72 63

Telex: +43 222 135 898

ktw a

(Salutation: Sir)




You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of Kuwait in your country.


MOROCCODriss ben Ahmed el Ghenimi




Driss el Ghenimi has been sentenced to five years in prison for allegedly

violating Article 179 of the Moroccan Penal Code which imposes a sentence of between one and five years' imprisonment for "insulting the king". Driss el Ghenimi, a 65 year old married man with six children, is Secretary General of the Sidi Slimane office of the General Union of Moroccan Workers ((Union générale des travailleurs marocains, UGTM). He is a well known trade unionist and political opponent of the Moroccan Government.


On 5 May 1992 he took part in a meeting of the UGTM with the Popular Trade Union (Syndicat populaire, which is politically close to the government) to discuss the allocation of posts to workers from the two unions on a particular agricultural project. During Driss el Ghenimi

the meeting there was a heated exchange

between members of the rival trade unions.

Driss el Ghenimi was arrested from his home the following morning after

some members of the Popular Trade Union complained to the police that in response to their chants of "Long Live the King" he had shouted "Your King can go and shit".


Driss el Ghenimi was tried on 18 May 1992 by the court of first instance in Sidi Slimane and was convicted. He was given the maximum sentence of five years' imprisonment, 1,000 dirhams fine and was stripped of all civil rights, including the right to vote and the right to present himself as a candidate, for 10 years. On 30 July 1992 the appeal court in Kenitra upheld the conviction and the sentence.


Driss el Ghenimi denied the accusation during interrogation, before the examining magistrate and in court. His defense lawyers withdrew from both the trial and the appeal in protest at the refusal to allow them to call defense witnesses. Amnesty International is not in a position to establish whether the allegation that Driss el Ghemini made such a remark is true or not but it nevertheless considers that he is a prisoner of conscience.









Please send appeals to the Copies to:

Minister of Interior:


Minister of InteriorDelegation to the UN World

Quartier Administratif Conference on Human Rights

RabatEmbassy of the Kingdom of Morocco

MoroccoUntere Donaustraße. 13-15/6.Stock,

1020 Vienna

Austria


Tel.: +43 222 214 25 68

Fax: +43 222 216 79 84

Telex: +43 222 135 728



●calling for the immediate and unconditional release of Driss el Ghemini;


●expressing concern that he was imprisoned solely for the non-violent exercise of the right to freedom of expression.




Please do not repeat the alleged remarks of Driss el Ghemini in your appeals as this could be prejudicial to his chances of release.




You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of Morocco in your country.

SAUDI ARABIA Muhammad Hassan Daoud al-Shabeeb

and Zuhair al-'Awami


Muhammad Hassan Daoud al-Shabeeb and Zuhair al-'Awami


Muhammad Hassan Daoud al-Shabeeb, 21 years old, was arrested on 20 October 1992, apparently on suspicion of being in possession of Shi'a Muslim opposition literature and audio tapes. He was reportedly tortured while held at al-Mabahith al-'Amma (General Intelligence) prison in al-Dammam, in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Muhammad al-Shabeeb, who comes from Um al-Hammam village, al-Qatif, also in the Eastern Province, is a student at the Institute of Administration (Ma'had al-Idara) in al-Dammam. He was reported to have been held incommunicado and in solitary confinement for nearly two months. On 2 February 1993, he was transferred to the intensive care unit of al-Dammam Central Hospital. Amnesty International does not have details of the problems which led to his transfer but is very concerned for his well-being in the light of other reported cases of serious injury and death following torture in Saudi Arabia. The organization is also urging that he be released unless he is, or has been charged with a recognizably criminal offence.


Zuhair al-'Awami is an 18-year old Saudi Arabian citizen who died in mid-November 1992. He was arrested while leaving a friend's house in Safwa, in the Eastern Province, in the first week of November and was taken to al-Mabahith al-'Amma (General Intelligence) prison in al-Dammam. About one week later, Zuhair-al-'Awami was returned home, his body reportedly bearing signs of severe beatings. His family tried to take him to the King Fahd Hospital in the Eastern Province but he died en route. Zuhair al-Awami's father was allegedly forced to sign a statement to the effect that his son's death was natural. Amnesty International wrote to the Saudia Arabian authorities in mid-December 1992 about his case but has not received any response.


Torture is commonly used in Saudi Arabia against both political prisoners and common criminals. In the past year, Amnesty International has raised with the Saudi Arabian authorities the cases of four detainees who died in suspicious circumstances while in the custody of the police or the security authorities. In three of the cases, it was alleged that the death occured as a result of torture and in the fourth case, death was said to have resulted from the denial of medical care until shortly before the detainee's death.


Amnesty International urges the government of Saudi Arabia to make public the results of any investigation, including post-mortem examination, into the death of Zuhair al-'Awami. If no investigation has been undertaken, the organization urges that they be commenced without delay and that the findings be made public. Meanwhile, Amnesty International urges that the government instruct law-enforcement agencies that the use of torture against detainees and prisoners in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is unacceptable and that those responsible for such abuses will be brought to justice.


Please send appeals to the Copies to:

Ministry of the Interior:

His Royal HighnessDelegation to the UN World

Prince Naif bin 'Abd al-'Aziz Conference on Human Rights

Minister of the InteriorSaudi Arabian Embassy

Ministry of the InteriorFormanekgasse 38, 1190 Vienna

Airport StreetAustria

Riyadh 11234

Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaTel.: +43 222 36 23 16-17

Fax: +43 222 36 25 60

Fax: +966-1-4050130 orTelex: +43 222 116 625 saudia a

+966-1-4793680

Telex: 404416 DMMOISJ

Salutation: Your Royal Highness


●expressing concern at the reported torture of Muhammad Hassan Daoud al-Shabeeb, and calling for a full and impartial investigation, the findings of which should be made public; urging that he be released unless charged with a recognizably criminal offence;


●calling for a full and impartial investigation into the death of Zuhair al-'Awami, the findings of which should be made public;


●urging that clear instructions be given to all law-enforcement agencies that ill-treatment of detainees is unacceptable and that those responsible for such abuses will be brought to justice.


You can increase the power of your letter by copying

it to the diplomatic representatives of Saudi Arabia in your country.




c. Nando Neves/Imagens da Terra



c. Jeri Laber



c. AP/Wide World Pictures



c. Times of India/Mohammed Illyas



c. A. Hamidy Arsa/Editor Weekly News

Magazine



1Daw: an honorific title for a woman, denoting respect.



AI Index: IOR 41/08/93

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