Documento - SVAW Activist Toolkit: Making Rights A Reality: Gender Awareness Workshops

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This Human Rights Education (HRE) pack forms the first stage of the HRE component of The Stop Violence Against Women (SVAW) Activist Toolkit which is being developed as part of Amnesty International’s 2004 Stop Violence Against Women Campaign.

The Activist Toolkit covers three main disciplines and is designed to provide a comprehensive package for activism within the context of Amnesty International’s SVAW Campaign. The toolkit contains three free-standing components on:

· Human Rights Education workshops and supporting resources

· A Legal Section which analyses ‘state accountability’ and the standard of due diligence.

· A Campaigning Section which sets out how touse the legal concept of due diligence as a tool to campaign on violence against women

Each section of the toolkit is designed to complement the sister parts of the toolkit and together are envisaged as a resource to enable AI activists, Women’s Rights activists and others to be informed and take action to prevent Violence Against Women (VAW) .

The HRE Material:

The HRE material will form a number of packs and falls into two stages:

Stage One (this pack) – Gender Awareness Workshops: This part of the toolkit is designed to generate reflection and deeper understanding of the social construction of gender, gender discrimination and the link between these and VAW.

Stage Two - Specialist HRE workshops and resources:This second stage will provide specialised HRE materials for specific target groups and deepen understanding of legal concepts and standards. (these stage two materials will be available in the latter part of 2004).

Introduction to Gender Awareness:

Central to any activist’s ability to take action to prevent VAW is an awareness and analysis of the concept of gender, the social nature of its construction and the links between gender bias and VAW.

Becoming gender aware is to understand the constraints placed on women and men due to prejudices inherent in the construction of their gender.

Social norms, values and behaviour define the roles and status of women and men in society. It is the toleration of these discriminatory norms and values that often paves the way for acts of violence against women to occur.

This pack is designed to assist participants through the process of becoming gender aware and to take them beyond static awareness to a point of action: demonstrating their awareness through actions and behaviour.

By reflecting on and deepening our personal understanding and relationship to gender we can begin to unravel the complex beliefs which give rise to gender discrimination and in turn VAW. In doing so, we can develop our capacity as activists to tackle this worldwide Human Rights violation.

This pack has been divided into two modules.

Module One:

By the end of Module One participants will have:

· Explored their own understanding of gender

· Questioned commonly held assumptions on the construction of gender

· Explored the concepts of stereotypes, prejudice and power and their relationship to VAW

· Made links between gender-based discrimination and VAW

· Identified the relationship between VAW and Human Rights Violations

· Have an understanding of what VAW is and the extent to which it happens

Module Two:

By the end of Module Two, participants will have:

· Located Women’s Rights within the Human Rights framework

· Be aware of main barriers to preventing VAW including the public/ private dichotomy

· Understood key terminology surrounding gender issues

· Explored ways of addressing VAW

· Set own action methods and goals

Who Should Use This HRE Pack

This pack has been designed for use by Human Rights Educators and Trainers working in the field of Women’s Rights.

The material can be used with participants of a varying degree of expertise in the area of Human Rights and/or Women’s Rights. It is left to the facilitator’s discretion how to grade material in such cases.

The activities have been written with an adult audience in mind but most can be adapted for a younger audience (although facilitators should give considerable attention to suitability of case study materials and other resources when working with young people).

The material in Module Onecan be used with participants with little or no prior exposure to discussions on gender and is a useful starting point for self reflection by AI members, Human Rights activists and wider civil society members.

The material in Module Twobuilds on issues and topics raised in module one. It is designed to be used with participants made up of activists working on Women’s Rights issues and is directed at AI members and the wider community.

How To Use This Pack:

Each Module is made up of four three hour sessions. The two modules have been designed to run either side by side or independently as free standing units. The facilitator, however, should not be afraid of using the pack as a pick ‘n’ mix of ideas, selecting activities from different sessions and Modules and matching them with others to devise their own shorter workshop sessions.

Each session plan contains the aims of the session and a step by step guide on how to carry out each activity. An estimate of time needed for each session and activity is indicated alongside the title (NB. these are estimate timings and may vary according to each group. They are based on working with a group of 15 participants – for larger or smaller groups timings should be modified according to the facilitator’s judgement).

The material is learner focused and uses a wide range of education techniques including: group work, role plays, case studies, brainstorms, discussions, and art work. All the activities are highly participatory and it is advised that the participants be seated in a circle on chairs with tables left to one side of the room. The facilitator should include themselves in the circle.


In addition to detailed facilitator’s notes all the materials necessary for each session are contained in the materials section at the back of the pack. It includes:

· Handouts - to be photocopied and given to participants to keep

· Cut outs - to be cut out and used during the session

Examples of some of the brainstorming sessions are included among the session plans in each Module. Each session also includes:

Tips for Facilitators

This pack has been produced as a generic resource for Human Rights Educators within and outside of Amnesty International. The pack was piloted in different countries and as far as possible hopes to reflect a multicultural awareness and approach to the issues of gender and VAW.

We do however recommend that all facilitators consider the following tips:

· The workshops should be facilitated and/or adapted where necessary to take account of the local cultural and political context, although without changing the objectives of each session.

· Facilitators should prepare in advance of the workshops in order to be familiar with all the sessions and activities and to develop a clear understanding of the issues being raised. The facilitator may want to consider co-facilitation with an external specialist on some of the more substantive issues raised.

· Facilitators should prepare their own energizers (i.e. very short activities to slot into the workshop at various points to ensure participants remain active and alert) and should also consider different techniques for dividing participants into groups – these are not included in the session plans (see Bibliography and useful websites for suggested resources for these).

· Although all sessions use techniques which encourage participants to engage actively with the subject, facilitators need to ensure equal participation by all.

· Please take note of the checklist given at the beginning of each session to ensure you have all the materials required before the start of each session.

· Finally we strongly recommend that facilitators are alert to the sensitive nature of the topics under discussion and:

o explicitly raise this at the beginning of the workshop in order to create a safe working environment and underline the importance of respect through out the sessions – see session 1 for guidelines.

o are clear of their role as facilitator whilst conducting VAW related workshops and outline this at the beginning of the workshops.

o inform participants before attending the workshop of the content that will be explored and are clear in the aims of the workshop series.

o are aware that participants should not be directly invited to share personal experiences of VAW. Such sharing should emerge from the exercises in this pack as volunteered information and need to be handled with great sensitivity. (See guidelines on disclosure below.)

o are aware that in the exercises that do invite participants to share personal stories (on gender and discrimination not on explicit VAW related incidents) participants may not feel comfortable doing so and should not be forced.

o allow adequate time for de-briefing in sessions where participants may have shared personal stories or if disclosure takes place.


It is internationally recognised that one in every three women will at some point be a victim of physical abuse.

Although participants should not be directly invited to share personal experiences of VAW, the facilitator should be prepared for a participant disclosing that they themselves have been a victim of abuse or from a participant brought up in an abusive household.

Disclosure in workshops where participants have not been directly asked to share personal experiences of violence is most often from women who are no longer being abused. However, the facilitator should also be sensitive to the fact that there may be women in the group who are currently being abused and it is possible that perpetrators of abuse may also be present.

If anyone discloses that they have experienced or witnessed VAW the following steps should be takenAdopted from Advice for Handling Questions or Inquiries from Persons Alleging Violence Against Themselves or Someone Else published by AI Canada (Eng) for the 2004 SVAW Campaign.:

1) Respect the person and do not judge.

Take the disclosure seriously and provide a supportive environment to the individual making the disclosure regardless of the nature or extent of the violence. It is not necessary or appropriate to judge whether what the person has experienced is violence. It should always be noted that VAW and girls includes physical, emotional, and psychological abuse. Acknowledge the violence whoever the perpetrator is. Kind words and support from an understanding and compassionate individual at the moment of disclosure are crucial.

2) Have ready a list of addresses and phone numbers of individuals and groups who can help.

Facilitators are advised to always invite women’s and other groups which are specialised in providing direct services to victims/survivors of violence to share their work and specialist knowledge on the subject. There are certain aspects of support for victims and survivors of sexual violence that can only be provided by individuals or groups specially trained in these areas. These specially trained and well-experienced individuals or groups already exist in many countries and their services include post-traumatic and legal counselling, provision of emergency refuge, advocacy for housing and other rights byvictims / survivors and their dependents fleeing their violent homes and communities; medical treatment, advice, referral and direct support for economic livelihood, legal representation in court for property, support and custodial rights over their children. These services were mostly pioneered by women’s groups in the country.

If a woman or girl is reaching out, she is looking for support - the right kind of support. Having phone numbers and contacts to appropriate resources is critical. Have the names and phone numbers or web addresses of organizations that can support or provide assistance to women and girls who have experienced violence always available during the workshop series. It is a good idea to leave these in a discrete place where participants can access them privately if they so wish. A blank table for you to fill in with organisations relevant to the participants in your group is included in the materials section at the back of this pack.

It is important to negotiate and seek the explicit approval of organizations before referring individuals in need of their support. Groups or individuals involved in providing support and counselling to individuals traumatized by violence have standard guidelines which you need to be aware of and incorporate in your referral role.

3) Do not try to counsel the individual.

An HRE facilitator is not equipped to provide counselling to individuals who have experienced violence and should never present them self as such. The facilitator should be clear about their role of the facilitator from the outset of the workshop so participants are aware of the kind of support they will receive should they disclose. An HRE facilitator is responsible for facilitating discussions on VAW and gender and creating an environment that enables learning around the topic and issues.

If confronted with a situation of disclosure, acknowledge the person’s experience and find the time and the space to speak to her in a safe and secure environment. Explain what you are able to provide and cannot provide and encourage them to contact the organizations that can provide support.



v For participants to get to know each other

v To create a secure and sensitive working environment

v To identify groups fears and expectations about workshops

v To explore initial reactions to gender and chart participants level of understanding and comfort working on gender


v Flip Chart Board, Paper and Markers

v Large Red Ribbon

v Clean Waste Paper Bin

v Sheets of Newspaper (half as many sheets as number of participants)


v 3 hours


Total Time: 5 mins

Facilitator briefly introduces them self and outlines aim of workshop series. (5 mins)

Name Game:

Total Time: 30 mins

· Go round circle with each participant saying three things about them self on following topics. Highlight that the maximum someone can speak for is 30 seconds:

a.) work

b.) things you enjoy

c.) an interesting fact (15 mins)

· Once this has been completed ask participants to form a circle standing in alphabetical order determined by names. (3 mins)

· Go round circle to confirm that participants are standing in alphabetical order. (2 mins)

· Go round circle again. Each participant says their name. The whole group then repeats it back. Repeat this process until the group is comfortable with all the names. (3 mins)

· Go round circle again with whole group shouting the names in alphabetical order but this time the person does not introduce them self. (3 mins)

· Ask participants to form a new circle so they are not standing next to anyone they were standing next to before. (2 mins)

The group will now not be in alphabetical order.

· Go round circle for the last time. The group shout out each participant’s name but that participant does not introduce them self. (2 mins)

Group Contract:

Total Time: 30 mins

· Reform as whole group and ask participants what they need from each other and from you to work effectively and successfully as a group over the next few sessions. (1 min)

· Elicit answers on to flip chart paper. (It is nice to keep this to refer back to in subsequent workshops.) (9 mins)

Possible answers could include:

Facilitator’s Tip:

It is worth spending some time on the ground rules and discussing what people really mean by the points that are brought up.

· Once the ground rules have been elicited ask participants to spend 5 minutes discussing in pairs what these rules mean to women in their society. (5 mins)

· Go round circle with each pair of participants choosing one of the rules and feeding back on the points raised in their discussion. (15 mins)

Possible reactions/suggested responses, some of the points that may arise in the feedback discussion:

Are women respected equally within society?

Why is confidentiality important? So you can talk freely and openly about sensitive issues.

If women are facing difficulties where can they go in the community to discuss sensitive things in a secure and safe environment?

Is there a difference between active and passive listening? How actively are Women’s Rights being listened to in society? Are women speaking out about their rights and the discrimination they face, or not?

Can women and society do more to make their issues heard? or is it just that they are being ignored?

Active participation involves people wanting to take part and others creating the space for them to take part. Does this space exist for women in your community? What are women doing to actively occupy and/or create this space?

How much are Human Rights issues being dominated by male centred violations?

Facilitator’s Tip:

At least one out of every three women has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime, according to a study based on 50 surveys from around the world. Usually, the abuser is a member of her own family or someone known to her. Heise, L., Ellsberg, M. and Gottemoeller, M. Ending Violence Against Women. Population Reports, Series L, No. 11. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, December 1999, p.1.

In a group of fifteen to twenty participants at least one person will have experienced or witnessed an incident of VAW. The facilitator should, therefore, highlight the importance of confidentiality and sensitivity at some point during the course of the ground rules exercise.

Gender Thermometer:

Total Time: 35 mins

· Put large red ribbon down the centre of the room. (1 min)

· Mark one 0 degrees the other 100 degrees and put 37 degrees (normal body temperature) near the middle. (1 min)

· Explain that this is a thermometer to gage the level of anxiety participants feel about issues surrounding gender. (1 min)

· Explain that you will call out a series of worries people have about working on gender. If a worry makes the participant feel extremely anxious they should stand at 100 degrees. If they have a healthy level of anxiety they should stand at 37 degrees and if it is something that causes no level of anxiety or something they haven’t thought about before they should stand at 0 degrees.

· Call out worries below and ask participants to place themselves on the thermometer for each one:

1. The language ofgender and complexity of the issue.

2. Excluding men from the argument and creating a gender divide.

3. Sounding judgemental about other people’s social and cultural contexts.

4. Encountering a VAW survivor through the course of my work and not knowing how to handle the situation.

5. Reflecting the work I do on gender in the structure of the institution I work for.

· After each statement has been called out the facilitator should lead a discussion on why participants have stood in certain places on the thermometer.


It is important that activists feel fully equipped when working on any issue. Throughout this series of gender awareness workshops much of the terminology and many of the concepts surrounding gender issues will be explored and by the end participants will feel more confident and able to express their feelings and ideas on the issue.

It is only really in the past fifteen years that Women’s Rights have been recognised as Human Rights. Historically, VAW, particularly VAW in the home, has been hidden, ignored and left off the Human Rights agenda, despite its massive scale. We need to highlight VAW in order to redress this earlier lack of attention to the issue. Men should be actively encouraged to become part of this process. However, centralising concerns about male involvement to the point of reducing action on Women’s Rights issues is to again push Women’s Rights issues and the violations of those rights to the periphery where they will remain hidden and ignored.

Recognising discrimination as a root cause of VAW acknowledges that there is already a gender divide. Eliminating VAW necessitates that this divide is questioned and ultimately should narrow the divide that exists.

Every state in the world signed up to the UN General Assembly's Declaration on the Elimination of VAW:

Article 4 stresses that States:

"should not invoke any custom, tradition or religious consideration to avoid their obligations with respect to [the elimination of violence against women]"

Article 5of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against women (CEDAW) clearly sates that:

"State parties shall take all appropriate measures to modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, with a view to achieving the elimination of prejudices and customary and all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped roles for men and women."

Culture and religion are an important source of human fulfilment and the right to freedom of religion and culture are both Human Rights and should be enjoyed and not used as an excuse for one sex to dominate and abuse another. Many social and political rules or norms which seek restriction of women’s Human Rights are justified in the name of cultural or religious values. Restrictions can range from discriminatory inheritance rights or indications that a woman's testimony is less reliable than a man's to the fact of women being actively encouraged to remain in violent marriages at all costs. These work to make it harder, if not impossible, for women to escape situations of violence.

Any activist working on gender-based discrimination should be sensitive to the issues it raises and the sensibilities of people they may come in contact with. However, activists working on gender-based violence are activists and should nottry to take on the role of trained councillor. Locating the issue within the Human Rights framework, raising awareness and promoting activity to bring an end to the issue clearly delineates the activist’s role.

By raising the issue you are not telling someone who lives or has lived with the reality of violence something they don’t already know about their situation. Rather, you are working towards creating a world and environment where they can openly discuss their situation without judgement and promoting action among people to create a new reality with no place for gender-based discrimination and acts of gender-based violence. (Also see the notes on how to handle disclosure in the introduction to this manual).

As a method of good practice every organisation working on Women’s Rights should develop their own internal gender action plan to ensure that all their programs, policies, projects and activities facilitate the empowerment of women and help transform social values and relationships toward the goal of equality between men and women.

Binning Gender Fears:

Total Time: 40 mins

· Reform as whole group. Place clean waste paper bin in centre of circle. Give a piece of paper to each participant. Ask each participant to think of something that worries them personally about working on gender issues and write in the form of a question they want answered during the course of workshops. They should also write their name in brackets. (10 mins)

· Go round the circle, each person reads out their question and as they do puts it in the bin in the centre of the circle. After they have read out the question the rest of the group is asked for their initial comments on it. Each discussion should be limited to approximately one and a half minutes. (There will be some overlap of questions permitting extra time for discussions on some topics). (30 mins)

Facilitator’s Tip:

The facilitator should keep the binned questions for the last workshop when they can be revisited to see how the participants feel about what they wrote.

Gender Walk:

Total Time: 30 mins

· Spread sheets of newspaper randomly around the room on the floor.

· Explain to participants that when you shout out the word ‘Walk’ they are to walk around the room as fast as possible but without bumping into anyone. When you shout ‘person to person’ they are to stand on a piece of newspaper. Only two people are allowed on a sheet of newspaper at a time.

· Explain that you will call out a sentence which they can discuss in that pair for two minutes in total. At the end of the two minutes you will shout ‘Walk’ again and they can walk around the room again until you shout ‘person to person’ and call out the second statement and so on.

· Ask participants to mill around the room and then call out statements below one at a time. (10 mins)

Statements to be used:

a.) Something typical of my gender that I like doing.

b.) Something typical of my gender that I don’t like doing.

c.) Something not typical of my gender that I like doing.

d.) Something not typical of my gender that I would like to be able to do without judgement.

e.) Something I hope will happen over the workshop series.

· After all the statements have been called out and discussed ask participants to form three groups of five. Give each group a large piece of flip chart paper.

· Once in their groups, ask participants to brainstorm on to the piece of flip chart paper some of the hopes about the workshops that came up during the discussion activity. (10 mins)

· Reform as one group and share some of the participants hopes. Facilitator can refer to the aims of the workshop series and highlight what may and may not be covered. (10 mins)


Total Time: 10 mins

· Back in circle. Go round with each participant saying one thing they will remember from the session. The facilitator should set a time limit of 30 seconds for each person to speak.

(10 mins)



v To understand diverse nature of identity

v To understand that identity is a social construction

v To understand how differences can become the basis for discrimination


v Flip Chart Board, Paper and Markers

v 3 cut out petals for each participant (p. 46)

v Copy of flower for each participant (p. 47)


v 3 hours


Total Time: 5 mins

· Facilitator gives brief synopsis of what was covered in previous session and outlines aims of forthcoming session. (5 mins)

The Sun Shines On:

Total Time: 30 mins

· Ask group to sit in a circle and invite one participant to stand in the centre of the circle. Remove their chair so that there are only enough chairs for each of the people sitting down. (1 min)

· Ask the participant in the centre to think of a category which they identify with and that is true for them at the moment of speaking. These should be simple at first (e.g. red socks, blue eyes, yellow shirt etc.).

(1 min)

· The participant in the centre then calls out the statement ‘The sun shines on anyone who……..’ and completes it with the ending of their choice (e.g. ‘The sun shines on anyone who is wearing a yellow shirt.’ (1 min)

· Once the statement is complete all the participants sitting on chairs for whom the statement is also true stand up and move to another seat. (2 mins)

· The last person left standing stays in the middle and chooses the next category of person by completing the ‘sun shines on…’ statement.

· As the game progresses the facilitator should guide the participants away from making simple statements about physical identity towards more varied types of categorization (think about racial groupings, age, education, language, social class, sexual orientation, geographic location).

· The facilitator should end the game when they feel that enough types of identity have emerged. (10 mins)


· Once the game has been completed the participants should regroup in a circle and the facilitator lead a group discussion on the following questions:

Which were the largest groups?

Which were the smallest?

How did it feel to be in a minority?

How didit feel to be in the majority?

(15 mins)

Sun Shines On AlternativeFrom an exercise used by AI Philippines:

All chairs should be moved to the sides of the room. Participants should be asked to stand in a straight line across the centre of the room facing the facilitator and hold hands.

Facilitator explains that this is the line of social status/privilege and the end line (the wall opposite the participants) is the line of higher status/privilege. Explain that you will call out a series of statements (examples below - add more culturally relevant ones if necessary). Participants are to move forward or backwards a certain number of steps as instructed.

If you …….

· Are studying or studied in a private school or institution move five steps forward.

· Are a member of an indigenous group move seven steps back.

· Support the LGBT community take 5 steps back.

· Live in a rural area take 3 steps back.

· Are in full time paid employment move 8 steps forward.

· Own your own house move 6 steps forward.

· Belong to a minority ethnic group take 5 steps back.

Lead follow up discussion on following points:

· How did it feel to move forwards?

· How did it feel when you had to break hands with the group?

· How did it feel to reach the end line? How did it feel to not reach the end line?

· What needs to be done so everyone is always moving forward? Do we want to be moving forward?

POWER PETALS:Power Flower exercise adapted from activities in Mertus, Julie with Nancy, Flowers and Mallika Dutt: Local Action Global Change: Learning About The Human Rights of Women and Girls. UNIFEM and The Centre for Women’s Global Leadership, 1999 and Dollie, Farida: Women’s Rights Training Manual. Human Rights Institute of South Africa, 2002

Total Time: 65 mins

· As a group brainstorm on to flip chart as many different categories of identity that the group can think of. (5 mins)

Examples could include:


· Hand out three petals to each participant. Each participant chooses three identities which they feel they strongly identify with and writes one in each of the petals. They can choose categories of identity from the list or different ones. (5 mins)

· Ask participants to form small groups of about four. (1 min)

· In their groups participants put petals together to form a flower and compare the identities they chose, explaining the reasons for their choices. (10 mins)

· In open group feedback it is interesting to explore the many different ways used to categorize people and explore whether there were differences between the way female and male participants identified themselves. (5 mins)

· Give each participant a copy of empty flower but ask them to stay in their groups. (1 min)

· In their groups of four, participants fill in each of the petals on the flower with all the different identities chosen by their group so that each group member has a completed flower of identity. If the participants do not have enough different categories of identity to complete their flower they can select ones from the brainstorm list. (3 mins)

· Ask participants to shade in their individual flower according to whether they personally feel discriminated against or privileged in that area: (4 mins)

Discriminated = shade the bottom of the petal

Privileged = shade the top.

· Ask Participants to count the numbers of areas in which they feel privileged and the number of areas in which they feel discriminated against and compare with the other members of their group explaining their choices. (10 mins)

· Bring participants back together to form one group. (1 min)

· Have the word "intersectionality"on the flip chart and ask participants what they know about this term. (5 mins)

· Explain that an intersectional analysis of identity urges us to: (7 mins)

o look at all the different factors that constitute our identity.

o understand the various forms of discrimination and oppression that we face as members of the very diverse and different communities.

o understand the ways in which injustice and discrimination are rooted within hierarchies of power and privilege in modern society.

o examine our own positioning on the grids of power and to see how, in different moments, our different identities can place us in positions of superiority or inferiority in relation to others.Explanations taken from : Sunila Abeyesekera, On intersectionality. Paper given to AI’s Intersectional Women’s Network (now the International Women’s Human Rights Network) Meeting , Sunday 7 April 2002

· Have following comments from Radhika Coomaraswamy, former UN Special Rapporteur on violence against women written on OHP or flip chartSpecial Rapporteur on violence against women on the subject of race, gender and violence against women.A/CONF.189/PC.3/5,27 July 2001, para.20: (5 mins)

"The Consequences of intersectional discrimination may remain unaddressed by prevailing Human Rights approaches because the specific problems or conditions created by intersectional discrimination are often subsumed within one category of discrimination, such as race or gender discrimination."

"Failure to acknowledge the role of multiple forms of discrimination in Human Rights violations will mean that "…efforts to remedy the condition or abuse in question are likely to be as incomplete as is the analysis upon which the intervention is grounded."

· Bring activity to a close making following points: (3 mins)

if poor women of a particular ethnic group are forcibly sterilized, discrimination on the basis of class and race as well as gender contribute to this Human Rights violation. Or as the recent exposure of rape of women in war and conflict has demonstrated, the gender and racial/ethnic components of these violations cannot be separated out.’Mertus, Julie with Nancy, Flowers and Mallika Dutt: Local Action Global Change: Learning About The Human Rights of Women and Girls.

Frozen Pictures:

Total Time:70 mins

· Ask for participants to volunteer to share in their groups a story of a time when they felt discriminated against because of an identity outlined in their flowers. No one should be forced to do so if uncomfortable. (15 mins)

· Once the participants have shared their stories ask them to choose one story to present back to the rest of the group. (3 mins)

· Once the group have selected their story ask them to create a frozen picture to represent their story. The participant who originated the story is responsible for sculpting the picture and should include themselves in the picture but should not play themselves. (10 mins)

· Once each group is happy with their picture explain that they are going to present them to the other groups. Ask one group to go first, the other groups sit down. (1 min)

· Explain that you will count down from 5 – 1, by the time you reach 1 the group shall be frozen in position. You will then ask a series of questions for the others to answer. The frozen group must stay frozen. (1 min)

· Count down from 5-1. Once the group is frozen ask some questions (examples below)

1. What do you see?

2. Who is being discriminated against?

3. Why?

4. How are they feeling?

5. Who is the oppressor?

6. How are they feeling?

7. What are the reactions of the other characters/ on-lookers in the picture?

8. What are the feelings of the other characters/ on-lookers in the picture?


· Once the picture has been looked at in detail thank the participants and ask them to relax and sit down. Explain that they will be invited to talk about their picture in the discussion once all the pictures have been looked at. (5 mins)

· Repeat the process for the remaining pictures. (20 mins)

· Reform as a group and discuss the following:

1. How accurately did we analyse the stories you presented?

2. In which pictures was the oppression coming from personal prejudices and in which from institutionalised?

3. Is there a difference?

4. What is the importance of the concept of power to each of the situations? (15 mins)


Total Time: 10 mins

Go round circle and each person says one thing they found striking about today’s session (Facilitator should guide participants towards making comments on content rather than room temperature, acting, skills etc.)

(10 mins)



v To understand that ‘gender’ is a social construction and, therefore, a form of identity

v To make initial links between identity based discrimination and how this translates into gender-based discrimination


v Flip Chart Board, Paper and Markers

v Sex and Gender Maze Map (p. 48)

v Cut out fish, reeds and bubbles (approx. 5 of each for each participant) (p. 49 & 50)

v Flip Chart paper, blu-tak or sticky tape, marker pens

v Couple cards (p.51)


plain v 3 hours


Total Time: 5 mins

· Re-cap on last session and highlight that you looked at how identity can become the basis of discrimination which in itself is a Human Rights violation. Explain that gender can often be considered a form of identity and that, as with all identities, it has been socially constructed. Outline that in this workshop you will be looking at what gender is, how it has been socially constructed, and how discrimination is embedded in these constructions. It is this discrimination that paves the way for gender-based violence. (5 mins)


Total Time: 30 minsAdapted from Mertus, Julie with Nancy, Flowers and Mallika Dutt: Local Action Global Change: Learning About The Human Rights of Women and Girls. UNIFEM and The Centre for Women’s Global Leadership, 1999

· Ask participants what they feel is the difference between the words sex and gender. (1 min)

· As group briefly discuss opinions. (4 mins)

· Highlight Amnesty’s view and have following definitions on flip chart paper or OHP. (2 mins)

Genderrefers to the social attributes and opportunities associated with being male and female and the relationship between women and men and girls and boys, as well as the relations between women and those between men. These attributes, opportunities and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialization processes.

Sexby contrast with gender, refers to the biological state of being female or male.Stop VAW Internal Strategy

· Allow time for participants to write down definition or have it prepared on a hand-out. (1 min)

· Divide participants into teams of 2-3. (1 min)

· Give each team a copy of the maze map. Explain that you are going to call out a number of statements. The teams have to decide whether the statement is describing ‘sex’ or ‘gender’. If it is sex they take the left hand path, if it is gender they take the right hand path. (1 min)

· Read out the statements and allow time for groups to discuss. At this point do not give correct answers. (10 mins)

· Once all statements have been completed, ask participants which city they are in. Tell them the city they should be in if they have followed the correct path.

(2 mins)

Sex or Gender?

o Women give birth to babies, men don’t. (S)

o Little girls are gentle and timid; boys are tough and adventurous (G)

o In many countries, women earn 70% of what men earn (G)

o Women can breast-feed babies; men need a bottle for feeding babies (S)

o Women are in charge of raising children (G)

o Men are decision makers (G)

o In Ancient Egypt, men stayed at home and did weaving. Women handled family business. (G)

o Women inherited property and men did not. (G)

o Boys’ voices break at puberty; girls’ do not. (S)

o According to United Nations Statistics, women do 67% of the world’s work, yet their earning amount to only 10% of the world’s income. (G)

o Women are concerned about the standard of education for their children. (G)

o Women are forbidden from working in dangerous jobs such as underground mining; men work at their own risk. (G)

o The majority of policemen in most countries are men. (G)

o There are fewer women Presidents, Members of Parliament and Managers than men. (G)

· As group discuss & flip chart key points

Did any of the statements surprise you?

Did everyone in the group have the same view?

Was there disagreement? Could you resolve the disagreement?

How do gender roles vary across age differences, classes, races, cultures and historical periods?

In what ways do women in different countries experience power and oppression differently? (8 mins)


Total Time: 45 mins

· Ask group following question:

At what point in their life did they become aware of their gender? I.e. When did they first realise they were different to the opposite sex? ‘

They should think about gendered roles and not physical difference.’ (10 mins)

· Give participants a selection of fish, reeds and bubbles and explain:

The fishrepresent important events in their life where they were aware or became aware of their gender.

The small fishare for when they were young the larger fishfor the older they were. (Facilitators will need to suggest way to distinguish between male and female fish if a mixed group.)

The reedsrepresent barriers that they may have faced because of this event.

The bubblesrepresent a success or achievement they had because of that event.

· Allow participants time to fill in their fish, reeds and bubbles. (10 mins)

· Once completed participants stick the fish and corresponding reeds and bubbles on to the group river of life. (5 mins)

· Once the chart has been completed use following points to hold open group analysis. (20 mins)

How awareness of gender has affected life choices and how this differs between men and women?

Are there any particular ages when people feel most gendered. Is this the same for men and women?

Are there particular times or events that create barriers in people’s lives?

What discrepancies are there between the number of obstacles faced by men and women and the number of bubbles they produce?

How people’s experiences may in turn influence and effect people around them in their community i.e. if girls leave school young, they may all feel they should follow suit and vice versa?

Institutions shape gender from a very early age. The significance of this gendering is often only realised in later life. If this gendering is to be negated the institutional structure itself also needs re-structuring and the individuals involved re-educating.


Total Time: 30 mins

· Go round circle with each person saying name preceded by a word that starts with same letter as their name andthat is associated with being female. These can be both negative and positive. Example answers could be: mother Maureen, nagging Nora, sister Sid, pretty Pauline.

(5 mins)

This can be used to lead into discussion on stereotypes

1. How many of the descriptions describe women in a positive/ negative way?

2. What differences in language would there have been if using ‘masculine’ words?

3. Is language linked to discrimination?

4. Where do stereotypes come from?

5. What do stereotypes achieve? (25 mins)

Men are often described as aggressive, competitive, strong, dominant and courageous. Women in contrast are often described as weak, tolerant, passive, and emotional. Such stereotypical images are often used to justify VAW. An imbalance in power relations between men and women is also contained within these stereotypes.

Stereotypes dehumanise people. Once someone has been dehumanised it becomes easier to discriminate against them and commit grave Human Rights violations.

A Day In The Life:

Total Time: 55 minsAdapted from Mertus, Julie with Nancy, Flowers and Mallika Dutt: Local Action Global Change: Learning About The Human Rights of Women and Girls. UNIFEM and The Centre for Women’s Global Leadership, 1999

· As a group, brainstorm all the things they feel are important to define work and write these on flip chart. (5 mins)

· Ask group to select three of these characteristics to form group definition. Write this group definition on to flipchart. (5 mins)

· Divide group into four groups. (1 min)

· Give each group a piece of flip chart paper. Each group draws a line down the centre of the page. They write the 24 hour clock on both sides of the paper so they have two complete twenty four hour clocks. (5 mins)

· Give each group a couple card. Each group should be given a different card. (2 mins)

· Ask groups to fill in the activities performed by each member of the couple for every hour of the day. (They could use a different coloured pen for the man and for the woman). (10 mins)

· Once completed, ask groups to label their charts in the following way:

o Put a plus sign if it fits the group’s definition of work.

o Put a minus sign if it is not work.

o Put a question mark for those activities you are unsure about.

o Circle any activities on the list for which someone receives money. (8 mins)

· Groups write the couple being represented on their chart and stick them to the wall. (3 mins)

· Divide participants into pairs. (1 min)

· Ask participants to walk round in pairs, compare the different charts and consider what differences they notice between the man’s day and the woman’s day on each chart and the differences they notice between the different charts. Have the following questions on flip chart for participants to refer to. (15 mins)

1.) What percentage of the items listed can be defined as work?

2.) What percentage of the items listed as work are circled as paid work?

3.) How much do you calculate it would cost to hire someone to perform the tasks listed as unpaid work?

4.) Did listing all the activities for a day cause you to alter your definition of work?

5.) Are all the tasks you classified as ‘work’ unpleasant or difficult?

6.) Are all the activities you listed as ‘not work’ pleasant or fun?

7.) What does it mean to say ‘My wife or my mother, sister, daughter’ doesn’t work?

8.) What definition of ‘work’ is implied by this statement? Is it the same as your definition?

9.) How did the different scenarios effect the type and amount of activities the woman spends her day doing?

Cooler and Conclusion:

Total Time: 15 mins

Ask participants to reform as whole group and invite comments on their observations.

Women can be discriminated against because of the imbalances of power within gendered roles. It is her stereotypical roles of house cleaner, child carer etc. that result in the imbalance of shared responsibilities within the home, regardless of whether the woman is doing paid work or not.

There is also an imbalance in what type of ‘work’ is given monetary value and, therefore, social worth. Traditionally ‘male’ work is paid whilst ‘female’ work remains either unpaid in the domestic setting or tends to fall into work within the informal sector.



v To identify the relationship between VAW and Human Rights Violations

v To understand what VAW is and the extent to which it happens


v Flip Chart paper and marker pens

v Human Rights Cards (p. 52)

v Card and red, blue, green pens (or red, blue green post-it notes)

v Case Studies (p. 53 – 56)

v Cradle and Coffin Handouts (p. 57 – 58)


v 3 hours


Total Time: 5 mins

· Welcome group and give brief outline of workshop aims. (5 mins)

The Tree of Discrimination:

Total Time: 60 mins

· Draw a large picture of an apple tree, or fruit tree of your choice on flip chart. In the middle write the words Gender-based Discrimination. Ask group what they understand by gender-based discrimination. (e.g. on p25) (3 mins)

· Brainstorm with group all the things which cause gender-based discrimination. Emphasise that you are looking at gender-based discrimination not just acts of VAW. Write these at the roots of the tree. (6 mins)

· Once this has been completed brainstorm all the results of the discrimination. Write these in the apples of the tree. (6 mins)

· Divide participants into pairs. Introduce a female character called Louise. In their pairs each participant chooses one word from the roots and one word from the apples. Ask participants to think of a story to link the two words. In turn they share their stories with their partner.

(10 mins)

· Once they have finished their stories ask pairs to verbally brainstorm together any Human Rights abuses faced by the person in their story. (5 mins)

· Ask a selection of groups to share a story and the Human Rights abuses. (5 mins)

· Divide participants into small groups of about three. Give each group one of the Human Rights cards. .

· Ask groups to discuss all the ways women from their community are denied that human right. (5 mins)

For example,

Males being given food rather than girls- some families give males preferential treatment during food shortages which can deny the right to life.

Councils not funding adequate street lighting and lighting in car parks in known troubled areas denies women the right to security of person.

Employers discriminating against pregnant women or married women, in case they become pregnant, denies women the right to just and favourable conditions of work.

· In their groups ask participants to choose one of the examples from their discussion to present to the rest of the group in frozen picture form or they can draw a picture to represent the discrimination. Emphasise that participants should focus on different ways women are denied that right and not just on physical acts of violence against women which are particularly sensitive to represent in picture form.

· Give groups time to prepare their pictures. (10 mins)

· Once they are ready explain that each group will come to the front and present their picture – frozen or drawn - to the rest of the participants one group at a time. Explain that if it is a frozen picture, you will count from 5 down to one. Once you reach one each group should be frozen in position. Participants who have drawn their picture are invited to present this to the rest of the group.

· Observing participants are invited to guess which right they think is being violated.

· The group presenting their picture is then asked to explain their picture.

· As part of the feedback discussion the facilitator should ask the participants how the discrimination faced by the woman in the picture and the violation of that right contributes to and leads to acts of VAW. (10 mins)

Case Study:

Total Time: 40 mins

· Divide participants into three groups. (1 min)

· Give each group one of the case studies. (1 min)

· In their groups participants answer following questions which are written at the bottom of each case study:

1. What are the Human Rights issues here?

2. Why do you think this situation came about – what are the underlying causes?

3. Who is responsible?

4. What can be done? (19 mins)

· Groups choose one participant to report back to rest of group. (19 mins)

· Quick summing up by facilitator.

From The Cradle To The Grave:

Total Time: 50 mins

· As group, form definition of VAW and write on flip chart. (12 mins)

· Divide participants into groups of three to four.

· Give each group a large sheet of flipchart paper and smaller blank pieces of card or post it notes. (some red, some blue and some green)

· Explain that on the pieces of coloured card the group are to write an example of a different kind of violence experienced by women at different ages – childhood, adolescence, old age - and stick them to the cradle.

· Give participants time to write on the cards. (8 mins)

Red= childhood

Blue= adolescence adulthood

Green= elderly

· Once completed the groups rotate round looking at each others cradles to see what each group produced. Invite questions while participants rotate. (5 mins)

· Reform as a group. Highlight that some forms of VAW occur before the woman is even born, preventing her from even reaching the cradle. Invite participants to offer some examples. Possible answers could include: rape in conflict damaging woman’s ability to reproduce, sex selective abortion, damage to unborn foetus due to physical assault from partner during pregnancy. (3 mins)

· Give Out Coffin with facts about VAW from around the world. (2 mins)

· Highlight definition of UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women which should be written up on flip chart paper or OHP prior to the session starting: (5 mins)

any act of gender-based violence that results in or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.’

· Highlight fact that not all acts of gender-based violence are directed at a woman and not all acts which harm a woman are gender-based. (5 mins)

· Ask participants if they feel that the UN definition is adequate or if there is anything they would like to see added, removed or changed? (5 mins)

· Invite participants to compare the 2 definitions (brief discussion). (5 mins)


Total Time: 15 mins

· Explain that you now represent all women affected by violence. You are going to walk round the outside of the circle. When you place your hand on a participants shoulder they are to make a promise of a way of incorporating a woman’s needs into their work. They should be as precise as possible to avoid comments such as promote women’s Human Rights. Give participants time to silently decide on what their answer will be. (3 mins)

· Walk slowly round the outside of the circle and tap each participant gently on the shoulder in turn. (12 mins)



v To question commonly held assumptions surrounding VAW

v To familiarise participants with Human Rights documents in relation to Women’s Rights issues


v Flipchart, paper and pens

v A copy of the myths and facts for each group of four (p. 59- 62)

v A copy of the washing line for each group of four (p.63)

v Points to Consider in Analysing Your Story Handout (p.64)

v If you have access to the web, a copy of UDHR (available on the website of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights:

v If you have access to the web, a copy of the CEDAW (available on the website of The Division for the Advancement of Women:

v Case Studies (p.65 – 66)

v Examples of positive Human Rights stories/news from newspapers, AI sources etc.


v 3 hours


Total Time: 5 mins

Outline what has been covered on course so far and what the next half of the workshop series covers: (5 mins)

What has been covered so far:

· That gender is a form of socially constructed identity.

· Imbalances of power between male and female are embedded within this construction.

· These imbalances of power result in the discrimination of women which paves the way for gender-based violence to occur.

· Changes at personal and social level.

· Definition of gender-based violence.

The second partof the workshop series will look at:

· Effects of VAW at a personal, community and social level.

· Ways of addressing VAW at a personal, community and social level.

· Barriers that may exist when addressing the problem.

VAW Myths and Facts

Total Time: 30 mins

· Divide participants into groups of 3 – 4. (1 min)

· Give each group a copy of the washing line. (1 min)

· Hand out dirty myths. (1 min)

· Participants place the myths on the line according to whether they think society in general agrees or disagrees. (10 mins)

· Give participants sponge facts to clean up the myths. (1 min)

· Participants match the fact to the myth. (10 mins)

· Check together as whole group and explore any differences. (6 mins)

Highlight the fact that:

VAW is one of the most widespread Human Rights abuses as well as one of the most hidden. It cuts across cultural, religious and economic boundaries and affects women of every class, race, age, religion nationality and sexual identity.

The work to expose the extent of VAW over the past 25 years has produced increasing evidence of its global magnitude – most surveys agree on the alarming statistic that around one woman in three worldwide is affected by violence during her life time. However, it is important to remember that because of the sensitivity of the subject, VAW is almost universally under-reported so any findings probably represent the minimum levels of incidence.

Evidence also shows that no political or economic system or culture is exempt when it comes to allowing and justifying VAW. It happens in public and private, in peace and in wartime, in developed and developing countries.Kavanagh, Julie: Stop Violence Against Women Campaign Workshop. Amnesty International UK (Unpublished) , 2003

· Tie- up the activity.

Standing Up For Yourself

Total Time: 85 minsFrom Mertus, Julie with Nancy, Flowers and Mallika Dutt: Local Action Global Change: Learning About The Human Rights of Women and Girls. UNIFEM and The Centre for Women’s Global Leadership, 1999

· Divide participants into small groups of about four. (1 min)

· Working in their small groups, participants remember and tell their group about a time in their life when they defended their Human Rights. Emphasise that this event does not have to be related to VAW as the focus will be on how they defended their right. (15 mins)

· After everyone has told their story, the small group should take up each story again and analyze the conditions that made it possible for each person to defend their rights. The handout Points to Consider in Analyzing Your Storywill help participants here. (10 mins)

· Once participants have done this they should choose one story to retell to the rest of the group. A participant might retell their own story or someone else might tell it. Or, members of the group might act out the central events of the story. Give participants time to prepare their story to present back. (9 mins)

· Each small group presents one story told in that group. While the stories are being told or re-enacted, the facilitator represents each graphically on a wheel with spokes. On the spokes are written the acts of defence (e.g. "demanding equal pay", "challenged harasser"), the area between the spokes becomes the factors that helped enable them to stand up for their rights. (10 mins)

· Once the wheel has been completed, the group examines the various "spokes" and supports on their wheel and derives from them the basic Human Rights or needs the stories represent (e.g. "Education", "Economic Equality", "Freedom from Violence"). These rights or needs are then written on the rim of the wheel. (Note we say rights or needs at this point as some of the items identified may not be legally enforceable rights.) (15 mins)

· Breaking again into small groups, participants use the copies of the UDHR and CEDAW to match the rights and needs on the wheel to particular articles. (15 mins)

· Bring participants back together and lead open group discussion on following point:

(10 mins)

What conditions are necessary for women to recognize their needs and stand up for themselves?

For example, financial security often is a big factor (e.g., "I couldn’t tell him ‘no’ until I could afford to have my own place to live."). For some, the support of other women is crucial (e.g. "I knew my mother was behind me all the way" or "I don’t know what would have happened if there hadn’t been a battered women’s shelter.") For others, education and/ or the freedom to express herself is the e.g. I saw some women demonstrating against VAW in the village etc.

Recognising Women’s Rights as Human Rights is fundamental to the process of bringing an end to VAW.

Human Rightsare indivisiblewith no one right having greater value than another. They are universaland belong to all people equally regardless of socially constructed gendered roles, although gendered roles can affect they way the right is violated.

They cannotbe taken awayor abrogatedand are interdependentso the promotion of one right necessitates the promotion of all rights.

The Human Rights framework establishes a common languagefor Women’s Rights activists and through international law enables statesto be held accountablefor any Human Rights abuses and violations.See It’s In Your Hands Launch Report for AI’s SVAW Campaign

Case Studies:

Total Time: 30 mins

· Divide participants into three groups.

(1 min)

· Give each group one of the case studies. (1 min)

· In their groups participants discuss:

1. What rights have been violated

2. What factors prevented the woman from standing up for her rights? (Think about events before, during and after)

(20 mins to read and discuss

8 mins to feed back)

Positive Action Quiz:

Total Time: 25 mins

· Pin up examples and articles about successful and positive steps that are being taken by individuals and organisations in your local community to promote Women’s Rights.

· Give participants time to circulate and read the articles. (10 mins)

· Divide participants into four groups and run a quiz with questions based on the articles they have just read. (10 mins)

· Lead follow up discussion on how they could incorporate anything they read about into the work that they do. (5 mins)


Total Time: 5 mins

· Thank participants for their work and outline how next session looks at some of the institutional barriers faced by women in more depth. (5 mins)



v To look at the public/private dichotomy and establish it as a barrier to:

a.) recognizing Women’s Rights as Human Rights

b.) stopping the prevention of VAW at the personal, community and social level

v To introduce the concepts of state and non-state actors and due diligence

v To challenge the distinction between the public and private spheres by looking at the interrelationship between the two


v Flip chart paper and marker pens

v Circles of Support handout (p.67)


v 3 hours


Total Time: 10 mins

The following should be written on the flip chart before you start the session:

State Actor Non-state Actor

State Accountability Due Diligence

· Ask participants if they are familiar with these terms and what they understand them to mean. (5 mins)

EXAMINING VIOLENCEHuman Rights Training of Trainers Manual (Unicef – Operation Lifeline Sudan by Nancy Flowers

Total Time: 75 mins

· Brainstorm verbally ‘What are some formsof VAW? (If participants did session 4, elicit what they remember from ‘the cradle to the grave’ activity.) (5 mins)

· Using the information contained in the cradle ask participants to identify different typesof violence. (5mins)

· Write answers on flip chart. (3 mins)

Possible answers could include:

o Physical abuse

o Psychological abuse

o Reduced or denied access to resources necessary for physical and psychological well-being(e.g. food, health-care, education, money)

o Use of women as commodities (e.g. trafficking, girl child pornography)

· Divide participants in to pairs and ask them to divide a piece of A4 paper in to three columns as follows: (2 mins)


Explain that these are the different perpetratorsof VAW. (4 mins)

Violence by Authorities:

Violence committed by people in authority or agents of the government, such as soldiers, police or guards at borders, prisons, or refugee camps.

Violence in the Family:

Any violence occurring in the home and/or committed by family members: male spouses, fathers, uncles, brothers, sons, and other relatives. It may include rape and other forms of sexual assault, mental torture forced incest, the withholding of food or other necessities, or verbal abuse.

Public Violence:

Violence committed by members of the public, such as attacks or rape by a stranger.

· Ask participants to write the examples of violence on the cradle handout in the appropriate columns. (5 mins)

· Ask. "Why is it important to distinguish different forms violence from each other?" (5 mins)

· If necessary point out that while most forms of violence are Human Rights violations, there are differences in responsibility and response to different forms of violence (e.g., some are punished severely, others go unpunished, some are ignored entirely) (2 mins).

· Ask participants to give examples from their own experience of different forms of violence they have seen or experienced. (5 mins)

· Ask ‘under which categories do most of these examples fall?’and add a tick/mark to this column. (3 mins)

· Read the following scenario: (1 min)

A fight in the market:

On a busy market day a fight breaks out in the middle of the market. FirstAshouts loudly at B. Then Atakes up a stick and begins to beat Bon the head and shoulders. Bis much smaller and cannot put up much defence. Soon Bis lying on the ground and Akicks B, who is bleeding from the nose and the mouth.

· Ask participants following questions: (35 mins)

1.) What do you think would happen if AandBwere:

a.) Two men?

b.) Two women?

c.) Two boys?

d.) A husband and wife?

e.) A father and son?

f.) A father and daughter?

2.) Would police or other authorities intervene?

3.) Would bystanders intervene?

4.) Do the age, gender, and relationship of A and B make a difference to how people react? Why?

Alternative Extra:

Use the scenario to role play several different versions of the story and compare responses based on the age, gender and relationship of the people involved.

Circles of Support:

Total Time: 30 mins

· Give each participant a copy of the circles of support sheet. (1 min)

· Explain that participants are to write the names of the people and organisations in their community that someone should be able to talk to in times of trouble (at this stage, this does notnecessarily need to be VAW related trouble).

Circle 1represents the people who are closest to them.

Circle 2people who are close but not as close as circle 1 etc. (5 mins)

· In pairs participants compare their circles and discuss the different reasons for talking to the people in the circles and the kind of support they receive from them. (9 mins)

· Ask a few participants to share what they discussed (5 mins)

· Lead follow up discussion on following points:

1.) What happens when the support from the circles closest to you isn’t there?

Imagine you are:

a.) A woman who is being beaten by her partner

b.) A woman who has been raped in a conflict situation

How would these situations change what participants have written in the circles. (15 mins)

Supporting Role plays:

Total Time: 60 mins

· Ask participants to form pairs. (1 min)

· In pairs they choose one of the institutions or organisations from the previous exercise. For variety it is good if a number of organisations/ institutions are used. (2 mins)

· In their pairs, participants write and agree a ten line script between X and a representative from that organisation for help. For the sake of the exercise, participants are to focus on the negative aspects of what may occur when asking for help. (15 mins)

· Once participants are happy with their dialogues invite one pair to perform their dialogue to the rest of the group. (2 mins)

· Once they have read through it once, ask participants to repeat it. This time, as they do, participants observing are encouraged to shout ‘stop’ when they hear something that could prevent the woman from speaking further. The participant who interrupts offers what they would like to hear. The suggestion is incorporated into the dialogue. The process is repeated until the ‘ideal’ situation has been reached.

(Allow approx. 10 mins per dialogue explored)


Total Time: 8 mins

· Either as a group or participants discussing in pairs clarify what they understand by ‘state actor’, ‘non-state actor’, ‘due diligence’ and ‘state accountability are and the importance of these concepts to work on ending VAW. (8 mins)



v To look at terminology surrounding gender issues and promote confidence in using it

v To explore some of the problems that might be encountered in trying to Stop VAW


v Flip Chart, paper and pens

v Word & definition cards – (p. 68 - 69)

v Effects Web Case Study (p.70)

v Effects of VAW Cards (p.70)

v Breaking Barriers Role Play Cards (p.71)


v 3 hours


Total Time: 5 mins

· Outline aims of session. (5 mins)

Vocabulary Games:

Total Time: 30 mins

· Divide group into pairs and give each pair a set of word cards. (Photocopy or write enough sets of words in preparation). (1 min)

· In their pairs discuss what they understand each word means. (10 mins)

· Give out definition cards and ask them to match each definition to a word. (9 mins)

· Clarify together as group. (10 mins)

Effects Web:

Total Time: 60 mins

· Read out case study about the woman from Suva Reka, Kosovo. (5 mins)

· Divide participants into groups. (1 min)

· Give each group one of the effects of VAW cards. You can also give each group a copy of the case study to refer back to. (1 min)

· Ask them to brainstorm as many effects as they can on the category on their card. Each effect is written as a separate event. Results of that event and results of results are written up as a flow chart. (20 mins)

· Once completed the group draw boxes round each event using the following code: (10 mins)

Blue= Effects on individuals

Green= Social responses

Yellow= Effects on society

· One participant from each group feeds back chart to rest of group. (15 mins)

· Lead open group discussion on how the effects webs would be different if the rape had been committed by a male relative. (8 mins)

Alternative Extra:

5 Ask participants to choose one of the implications to present back in frozen picture form.

Allow groups approximately ten minutes to prepare.

Once groups are ready explain that you will visit each in turn. You will count down from 5 – 1. Once you reach 1 the group should be frozen in position. You will then ask a series of three questions. The first will be directed at the participants who are watching. For the second two you will tap participants who are frozen in the picture on the shoulder. They should not move out of position but answer the questions with the first things that come into their mind.

The three questions to be asked as you visit each group are:

To the observing participants:

· What do you see?

To participant in the picture:

· What are you feeling?

· What are you thinking?

The facilitator can tap as many participants in the picture on the shoulder as they wish, but each time the participant should be asked questions 2 and 3.

Once you have visited each group in turn bring participants back together as group.

Highlight fact that VAW has wide reaching implications on society as a whole. It affects individuals not directly involved with an incident as well as the individuals involved.

Discuss some of the other implications that arose during the brainstorming session before they focused on the issue they chose to present back to the group.

Breaking Barriers:

Total Time: 75 mins

· Following on from previous exercise, elicit some suggestions from the group about possible courses of action their organisation/community could take to help bring an end to VAW. Write ideas on flip chart. (NBthe next session focuses on actions for change in much more detail so this is just a short discussion to set the scene for following role play.) (10 mins)

· Elicit some examples of barriers they may face in trying to implement these ideas and changes. (10 mins)

· Divide group into pairs. Label pairs A& B. (1 min)

· Explain that person Ais to imagine that they have just returned to their organisation having been on a gender awareness workshop. They are keen for their organisation to incorporate some of their ideas into their policies. (1 min)

· Person Bis to play the character outlined on their role play card. They are to keep the information on their card secret but respond to person A’s request accordingly. Let each group act out their scenario for approximately five minutes. Walk round observing and offering support where necessary. (5 mins)

· Ask groups to stop. Ask for volunteers from each scenario and invite them to play out their dialogue in front of the group. (8 mins per dialogue)

After each scenario, Ask:

· Why was there resistance?

· How did the activist cope with this resistance?

· What advice could we offer the activist in dealing with this resistance?

· How realistic was the resistance that was presented?

· How else could this resistance manifest itself?

It is important to highlight that you are not talking about how the participants ‘performed’ but exploring the issues that their ‘performance’ raised.


Total Time: 10 mins

· Thank participants for their work and remind them that the activity was a role play activity and not real life. (1 min)

· Go round circle with each participant offering one piece of advice to the character they have just explored. (9 mins)



v To explore what needs to be done to stop discrimination against women at a personal, community and social level

v To outline Amnesty’s campaign

v To sum up and reflect on course

v For Participants to evaluate course


v Flip chart, paper and pens

v A large copy of the brick path for each group of four participants. (p.72)

v One complete set of the ‘actions for change’ cards for each group of four (p.73 - 74)

v Examples of positive actions being taken by individuals and organisations to promote Women’s Rights. These should be put up around room prior to session.


v 3 hours

Repaving The Path of Discrimination:Adapted from Mertus, Julie with Nancy, Flowers and Mallika Dutt: Local Action Global Change: Learning About The Human Rights of Women and Girls. UNIFEM and The Centre for Women’s Global Leadership, 1999

Total Time: 60 mins

· Divide participants into groups of three to four. (1 min)

· Give each group a piece of flip chart paper and a marker pen. (1 min)

· In each brick, participants write a specific example of discrimination faced by women in their community. (10 mins)

· Once completed ask groups to verbally brainstorm what is necessary to repave this path of discrimination. (5 mins)

NB: Participants do not write anything at this stage. (10 mins)

· Give out coloured cards. Do not explain the significance of the colours at this point. (1 min)

· Explain that participants take turns to turn over one card and read it to the rest of the group. The group must decide whether the change outlined on the card is ‘Essential’, ‘Useful’ or ‘Irrelevant’ to complete the following sentence:

In order to achieve women’s Human Rights………..’

(This should be written up on the flip chart for participants to refer back to)

o If the group feel it is essentialit should be stuck over the insidebricks.

o If the group feels it isusefulit should be stuck over theoutsidebricks

o If they feel it is irrelevantit should be placed in the discardedbox.

The change described on the card does not have to be stuck over a corresponding type of discrimination. (5 mins)

· Allow time for groups to discuss cards

(15 mins)

· Once all cards have been placed on the sheet lead open discussion on where groups have placed cards and invite explanations surrounding choices made. Try to reach group consensus. (15 mins)

· Ask participants to note whether there are any patterns in terms of where they have placed the different coloured statements. Draw attention to the significance of the colours of the statements: (2 mins)

Pink= legislative change

Blue= attitude change

Yellow= action for change

· Ask participants to examine their decisions:

o In general, what principles guided you as you placed the statements under the three columns?

o Was there bias towards or against legislative change, attitude change or action? If so, why do you think your group has such a bias?

o Can the priorities generated in your group be used to build an action plan to address VAW?

An Imagined Land

Total Time: 30 minsAdapted from Kavanagh, Julie: Stop Violence Against Women Campaign Workshop. Amnesty International UK (Unpublished) , 2003

· Bring participants back together as a group. (1 min)

· Give each participant a piece of paper and ask them to draw an outline of their hand on it. (2 mins)

· Ask them to close their eyes and imagine a new world at the end of their paths where discrimination has been filtered out; a world where violence against women doesn’t exist. Ask participants to think about their own daily routines, friends, families, communities and national and international relations.

· Give participants one or two minutes to imagine this land and while they are doing so, to think of a sentence that represents their world. Read out some of the sentence in the materials section to give participants some guidance. (p.76) (4mins)

· Ask participants to open their eyes and write their sentence in the outline of their hand on the paper. (2 mins)

· Explain that you will go round the circle with each participant saying their sentence and placing their paper hand in the centre of the circle. (1 min)

· Go round the circle with each participant reporting back their sentence. (15 mins)

· Once you have gone round the circle, highlight the campaigning slogan used by Amnesty International during the 2004 SVAW Campaign: (13 mins)

It’s in Your Hands’


Total Time: 40 mins

The following are some nice ways to evaluate the course. Each takes approximately forty minutes. The facilitator should choose their preferred technique:

Gender Gage:

· Revisit the gender thermometer and/or the binned fears from session one to chart the difference in how participants now feel about working on gender issues.

Smiles Frowns and Light bulbs:

Draw following chart on flip chart:

· In the Smilessection write things the participants liked on the course.

· In the Frownswrite things participants did not like on the course.

· In the Light Bulbssection write moment’s participants learnt something or understood something better.

· In the Questionswrite things the participants are still unclear about or questions they want answered.

· Discuss as group what the answers to the questions could be and how they can set about getting the answer.


Total Time 20 mins:

The following are some nice ways to close the series of workshops. Each takes approximately 20 minutes. The facilitator should choose their preferred technique.

Post Cards:

An effective way of encouraging participants to set their own action methods is to give each participant a post card and ask them to write themselves a promise about a positive action theyare to take. The facilitator collects these in and then posts them back to the participants a week after the course.

Circle of Affirmation:

· Participants stand in a circle.

· Choose one participant at a time going round the circle.

· The group thanks that person for three things they have done over the workshop series.

· After all three pieces of thanks the participant is given a round of applause.

End of facilitation Notes.

PETAL: To be photocopied and cut out and used in Power Petals Exercise in Session 2










Men and women have the same status and opportunities. They do not have to be treated the same but have t be attributed with the same respect and value and have the same ease of access to opportunities.


The exercise of equal rights and entitlements leading to outcomes which are fair and just, and which enable women to have the same power as men.


Ensuring that women’s concerns and experiences, as well as men’s, are an integral part of the design and analysis of any planned action, including legislation, policies or programs in all areas and at all levels.


The socially constructed roles of women and men ascribed to them on the basis of their sex.


Recognising the negative impacts of gender issues and the need to address the inequalities that arise from them.


A process whereby women, individually and collectively, become aware of how power structures, processes and relationships operate in their lives and gain the self confidence and strength to challenge the resulting gender inequalities. Hanna, Carolyn, “Transforming empowerment and gender mainstreaming” presentation at the International Symposium on a new vision for gender policy: equality, development and peace. Seoul, 17 – 18 April 2003


Violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects women disproportionately. Not all acts which harm a woman are gender-based and not all victims of gender-based violence are women.


The idea of "intersectionality" seeks to capture both the structural and dynamic consequences of the interaction between two or more forms of discrimination or systems of subordination.


d A threshold of action and effort which a state must demonstrate to fulfil its responsibility to protect individuals from abuses of their rights.


Private individuals acting independently from any government organisation or position of authority. (Includes economic actors such as businesses).


Individuals acting on behalf of the state (includes government officials, police, judges, prison guards, security forces, staff at public hospitals or in educational institutions).


The states responsibility for acts of VAW whether committed by a state or non-state actor. As part of its 2004 SVAW campaign Amnesty International will identify the roles and responsibilities of a wide range of actors, including parallel legal authorities, local, regional and municipal authorities, and armed groups. Amnesty International: It’s In Your Hands: Stop Violence Against Women. London: Amnesty International 2004 p.10









You are a male activist and have been an active campaigner on Human Rights issues for over twenty years. You are highly respected for your work through out your organisation and the campaigning world. You have been married for fifteen years and have four children. However, you have a history of hitting your wife, which no – one except you and her know about. Although you haven’t hit her for nearly a year, the fear of doing it again is something that you always carry with you.

You work in the funding department. You have an extremely successful fund raising record and have worked your way up from administrative assistant to grants administrator. You really enjoy what you do and would love to be a program director one day. You are concerned that some of the funders you normally approach will not want to approach issues surrounding gender and violence against women.

You are an activist and totally supportive of gender issues and want to help stop violence against women. However you read in the newspaper a while back about a group of Women’s Rights defenders who were physically and verbally assaulted on a campaigning march they were on.

You are a campaign co-ordinator and have an extremely heavy workload. Most of your experience is in refugee rights and you know little about gender issues. It does interest you but you are frightened of the extra work load it may create for you.

You are a female activist. You left your country four years ago because of a civil war. During the war you were raped by one of the soldiers. You have set up a new life, and feel that you have put the experience behind you and moved on. You are frightened of the memories campaigning on an issue such as this might bring back.

You are a committed activist and have been involved with defending Human Rights for over ten years. You are anxious about working on gender issues as you do not feel equipped to deal with the victims of violence your work may put you in contact with.

1.) Immigration law should be extended to grant political asylum to women fleeing violence of any kind

3.) The government should recognize violence against women as a human rights violation and impose strict punishments against perpetrators

4.) Survivors of rape should be required to testify in open court

5.) Pornography should be made illegal

6.) The government should give economic support to survivors of violence in the family

2.) Employers who tolerate sexual harassment in the workplace should be legally liable

7.) The idea that women ask or deserve to be victims of violence must be challenged

8.) Children’s books should address violence against women in the home

9.) Advertising agencies should be challenged when they objectify women or stereotype women as victims

10.) The belief that women are inferior to men should be addressed at all times

11.) Police should not interfere in family problems unless a life is in danger

12.) Women should always support other women

13.) Women should take action in solidarity with other oppressed groups to stop violence

14.) Those who support women’s right to be free from violence should lobby the government as well as religious and other institutions

15.) Businesses that consistently degrade women in their products or advertising should be boycotted

16.) Women should organize against stereotyping by the media

17.) Battered women’s shelters should place equal emphasis on violence prevention

Useful Organisations

Org name

Org address

Org website

Org email


Org tel. no

The material in this pack is a combination of new and existing material. It has been compiled by: Penelope Lee with Kate Moriarty, Sonia Omar and Pam Clarke. Many others have made invaluable contributions and every effort has been made to reference their material where used. A special thanks goes to: Nancy Flowers, Julie Kavanagh, Lesley Frescura, Jeandre Williams and the pilot team at AI South Africa, Jeselle M Papa, Jessica Sotto, James Dax de Castro, JJ Josef and the pilot team at AI Philippines, Laura Lopez Bech .



Afkhami,Mahnaz and Vaziri,Haleh: Claiming our rights: A Manual For Women’s Human Rights Education in Muslim Societie. Maryland: Sisterhood is Global Institute, 1996 (abridged version also available in Arabic)

[ab: A manual for women's Human Rights education in Muslim societies that examines Human Rights concepts within the major international agreements and documents, for all levels of Muslim societies including grassroots populations; aspires to be multidimensional, and includes an exploration of the economic, social, cultural and political condition; develops a framework for conveying universal concepts in association with indigenous ideas, traditions, myths, and texts rendered in a local context.]

Afkhami,M., Nemiroff, G.H., Vaziri,H: Safe and Secure: Eliminating Violence Against Women and Girls in Muslim Societies. Maryland: Sisterhood is Global Institute, 1998 [ Ab: Divided into four parts, using a mixture of case studies, discussion question and other exercises, the first three sections explores the issue of VAW in Muslim societies with particular focus on verbal and psychological abuse, escaping financial and resource coercion, sexual harassment in employment, child labourers, female genitial mutilation, rape, prostitution, child brides and honour killings: the final section includes an evaluation form to evaluate the publication, followed by numerous appendices, with details of projects aimed at addressing the problem of VAW and girls, text of international instruments, documents on national laws pertaining to Women’s Rights, and a list of resources and organisations]

Culbertson, Debbie (Ed.): Doing The Gender Boogie: Power, Participation and Economic Justice. Toronto : Ten Days for World Development, 1995

[ab : Explores the concept of gender through a series of workshops and case studies to deepen participants, both men and women’s understanding of gender inequality; looks at domestic workhers and slavery, sexual division of labour, global solidarity and issues pertaining to home and the community; includes a list of resources, glossary and examples of clip art.

Dollie, Farida: Women’s Rights Training Manual. Human Rights Institute of South Africa, 2002

[ab: Provides information on Women’s Rights as Human Rights, and practical guidelines for trainers on designing and facilitating workshops in South Africa, using tested approaches and activities; includes international and regional conventions pertaining to Women’s Rights, and the text of the South Africa Constitution and Bill of Rights.]

Hill Gross, Susan: How to Do It Manual: Ideas for Teaching About Contemporary Women in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Minnesota: Upper Midwest Women’s History Center, 1993

[ab : Teaching manual to assist educators with methods for introducing students and general educators audiences to women in development concepts and of raising the awareness of the importance of a focus on women in development and gender analysis; presented in the form of exercises, which can be photocopied, and includes discussion exercises, readings and problem solving cases based on real life issues in Asia and Africa; accompanied by and educational video on women and empowerment, 'In Her Own Image' ; copies from Upper Midwest Women's History Center, 6300 Walker St, St.Louis Park, Minnesota 55416]

Hope, Anne and Timmel, Sally: Training for Transformation: A Handbook for Community Workers. Book IV. London: ITDG Publishing, 2001

[ab: Aimed at community development workers, using a variety of participatory approaches, the manual explores five thematic issues concerned with environment, gender and development, multiculturalism, racism, and building participatory governance; each section contains exercises and activities to facilitate a deeper understanding of the issues. ]

Kavanagh, Julie: Stop Violence Against Women Campaign Workshop. Amnesty International UK (Unpublished) , 2003

[ ab: Training workshop using case studies and other participatory techniques to address domestic or family violence internationally; includes a list of organisations campaigning on the issue of violence against women in the UK, basic facts and figures, and a summary of the underlying causes of violence against women. ]

Matus, Veronique: Women’s Human Rights In Daily Living Together: A Manual for Women’s Human Rights Education. Organizing Committee for the Decade for Human Rights Education

[ab : A manual for educators, presenting a series of exercises, including discussion and games aimed at adults; the exercises aim to explore the position of women in society and their Human Rights and gender inequality; participants are encouraged to examine established structures in the family and society which affect the role of women, and to look at ways to change them; included in the manual is an evaluation sheet to use with the exercises, and a glossary of terms used.]

Mertus, Julie: Our Human Rights: A Manual for Women’s Human Rights. The Organizing Committee for the People’s Decade for Human Rights Education, 1995

[ab : A draft manual aimed at teachers to explore women’s Human Rights issues and includes role plays, group workshop activities for self expression to help facilitate discussion of women’s health, safety, politics, work and education; also includes information on teaching for Human Rights, and contains amongst others the text of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), and Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW); copies from: The Organizing Committee for the People's Decade for Human Rights, 526 W.111th St, No.4E, New York, NY 10025.]

Mertus, Julie with Nancy, Flowers and Mallika Dutt: Local Action Global Change: Learning About The Human Rights of Women and Girls. UNIFEM and The Centre for Women’s Global Leadership, 1999

[ab: A manual exploring different issues pertaining to women's Human Rights, including those related to the family, work, politics and media; also examines women's right to health, reproductive and sexual rights, violence against women, the rights of refugee and migrant women and women's right to education; each section contains activities, ideas and case studies for exploring the issues; includes tips and methodologies for undertaking workshops, and a selection of Human Rights treaties and standards]

Women’s Education for Advancement and Empowerment (WEAVE): Human Rights and Women.. Thailand: 1993

[ab: This booklet was produced as a result of a training workshop, on women and Human Rights entitled "women, human rights and development" organised by WEAVE, a Thai NGO; The workshop, which was held in November 1992, provided an opportunity for women belonging to various Burmese ethnic groups on the Thai-Burma-Bangladesh borders, to learn from other women participants, representing various national and international NGOs; it includes some definitions of what is meant by Human Rights and cultural relativism, and refers to particular rights as enshrined in the International Bill of Human Rights and UN Charter; it provides a simple description of the UN Human Rights machinery, and outlines factors responsible for Human Rights abuses; within this context, it explores the rights of women and children and the function of the main women’s bodies within the UN system responsible for women rights, and the role of the International Women’s Rights Action Watch (IWRAW) in campaigning for rights of women; a list of useful contact addresses is included and is available from; Women's Education for Advancement and Empowerment (WEAVE), PO Box 58, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50002, Thailand.]

Williams, Suzanne: The Oxfam Gender Training Manual. Oxfam, 1994

[ab: A comprehensive training manual aimed at adults, generally from developing countries, designed to introduce issues of gender, sex discrimination, feminism and equality; over one hundred training activities are clearly presented and explained, accompanied by notes on the experiences that facilitators have had with each exercise; a wide spectrum of issues relating to women are covered, including stereotypes, employment, development, violence, health, and family; copies from; OXFAM, 274 Banbury rd, Oxford OX2 7DZ. ]

Women’s Rights Network: Women’s Human Rights: A Manual For Education &Action. Massachusetts : Wellesley Centers for Women, 1998

[ab : Produced for those primarily taking part in the Women’s Rights Network (WRN), Human Rights Education and Advocacy Initiative as a practical guide to running HRE workshops as an educational resource; organized into three broad sections a) what are Human Rights, b) women rights are Human Rights, c) Human Rights action planning.]


Adams, Caroline and Harrow, Marietta and Jones, Dan (Amnesty International): Freedom: Human Rights Education Pack. London : Hodder & Stoughton, 2001

[ab: Aims to stimulate the student's awareness of Human Rights issues starting with their own knowledge and experience, and provides a practical educational approach to foster ideas for active teaching and learning about a range of Human Rights issues; Each unit has a set of teachers' notes for lessons and activities followed by a set of teaching materials for students that can be used separately as they stand ]

Amnesty International: First Steps: A Manual for Starting Human Rights Education London: Amnesty International (International Secretariat) 2001

[ab : Manual for teachers wanting to introduce Human Rights into their educational practices for young people; divided into six parts, the first explores Human Rights and HRE in general, and the other remaining five sections, look at the Human Rights environment within schools and the curriculum, diversity; the principles enshrined within the UDHR and the Convention on the Rights of the Child, and practical advice for building and organizing a Human Rights network; contains details of possible funders for HRE work, organizations and useful printed resources.]

Brander, Patricia and Keen, Ellie (Eds.)Compass: a manual on human rights education with young people

Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 2002

[ ab : Introduces young people, teachers, youth leaders and other educators to the concept of human rights education, and includes a collection of activities of different levels of complexity, themes and issues (including gender): chapter three contains ideas for active promotion of human rights, and four, information pertaining to international instruments and standards. The appendices contain essential information and legal documents]

Donahue, David M.: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Rights: A Human Rights PerspectiveTopic Book 3 2000

[ab : A collaborative effort by AIUSA, the Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network (GLSEN), and the Human Rights Resource Center, that provides activities for the classroom to explore issues concerned with gay and lesbian rights; includes official and simplified versions of the UDHR, and a list of resources and materials. ]

Schmidt, Janet (Ed.): Human Rights Education Resource Notebooks: Women’s Rights.New York: Amnesty International USA (Unpublished), 1997

[ab: Contains a selection of activities and resources about Women’s Rights; includes a comprehensive annotated bibliography and text of international instruments]


Amnesty International: Broken Bodies, Shattered Minds: Torture and ill-treatment of women. London : Amnesty International (International Secretariat), 2001 [ab: Published as part of the AI campaign "Take a step to stamp out torture" to mobilize people around the world to confront and eradicate the torture of women; examines torture of women in the home and community, failures of the state to provide legal redress and investigate gender bias in the police and judicial systems; also looks at torture by state agents and armed groups including the torture of women in custody and in armed conflict; includes case studies and recommendations for the elimination of torture against women: (AI Index: ACT 40/001/2001)]

Amnesty International: Creating a torture free world : Learning about Human Rights: Torture. London: Amnesty International (International Secretariat), 2001.

[ab: Aims to provide teachers and educators with generic education teaching materials for exploring the issue of torture through experiences of bullying; modular activities include group work, topics for discussion, drama, writing and drawing exercises; background material on torture and a list of resource material for teachers are provided: AI Index POL 32/002/2001; can also be used in conjunction with the Children's booklet (ACT 76/00101) ]

Cook, Rebecca J. (Ed.): Human Rights of women, National and International Perspectives.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994

[ab : Explores how the Women’s Convention and the supporting provisions and institutions could become an effective instrument in the quest for women’s equality, protection and individual dignity; also addresses the interactions between women and their families, including their domestic victimization by discrimination and violence, without stereotyping and only locating them within their family structures; discusses challenges facing the Human Rights of women and the international and regional approaches at our disposal.]

International Women’s Tribune Centre: Rights of Women: A guide to the Most Important United Nations Treaties on Women’s Human Rights. New York : International Women’s Tribune Centre, 1998 [ab : This issue explores the role and scope of the Women’s Convention (CEDAW), as a lobbying tool for women’s Human Rights: it outlines the strength and weaknesses of the Convention by looking at the complaints procedure and reporting processes: provides guidelines on creating a "Convention Resource Kit", which includes a mini Q & A, list of CEDAW Committee experts , NGO reports to CEDAW and resources : also includes a chart indicating the ratification status of international instruments by region.]

Koenig, Shulamith: Passport to Identity. New York : Peoples’ Movement for Human Rights Education (PDHRE), 2001

[ab : Recounts particular examples of women's initiatives globally within the framework of the Beijing Platform of Action (BPFA), using an interactive and participatory approach; exercises guide users through a path of personal and group reflection and preparation for action, enabling women to use Human Rights as a tool for systemic analysis and for social and economic transformation; chapters one to four establish a conceptual, pragmatic framework of the Human Rights of women, giving historical development of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and the BPFA; contains a description of the international Human Rights mechanisms for the advancement of women, discussing concerns, standards and goals; chapters five to thirteen examine the BPFA's critical areas of concern and leads readers in a discussion about its application in the community and the relevance of Human Rights in their daily lives; the annexes provide summaries of the two Covenants, Conventions against Torture, Racial Discrimination, Women and Children, and the BPFA; this publication is a companion to the CEDAW "Training of Training" video "Women hold up the sky" and "Call for justice".]

Newham Asian Women’s Project: Women’s Voices. Annual Report, 2000

[ab : Annual report containing testimonies of Asian women who have been at the forefront of domestic violence, with an introductory paragraph on the work of the Newham Asian Women's Project (NAWP); includes blank pages for note writing, and translations of testimonies in different languages. ]

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR): Women’s Rights: the Responsibility of All . Geneva : United Nations, 1997

[ab : Focused on Women’s Rights, contains a special section of contributions by United Nations agencies and programs on Women’s Rights; an initial list of activities being planned worldwide to commemmorate the 50th Anniversary of the UDHR with special reference to the Human Rights of women and excerpts from the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action and the Platform for Action from the Fourth World Conference on Women. ]

Raoudha, Gharbi (Cood.): Maghreb Women "With All Reserves" Collectif 95Maghreb Egalite

[ab : Produced with financial assistance from Friedrich Ebert Stiftung and the European Union in preparation for the 1995 Beijing Women's Conference, and provides an analysis of the impact of international instruments on domestic legislation related to the status of women; within this framework, it examines the nature and scope of international treaties and conventions and current discrimination in laws in force in the Maghreb countries as compared with the content of international instruments; also the non-effectiveness and non-enforcement of legal provisions which are present in national laws that comply with international standards of equality, but in reality result in discriminatory practices; covers economic, social, political and civil rights, birth control, marriage, family and inheritance rights ]

Schuler, Margaret A.: Claiming Our Place: Working the Human Rights System To Women’s Advantage. Washington: Institute for Women, Law and Development, 1993

[ ab: Offers some ideas on utilising the UN framework for addressing the rights of women and explores issues pertaining to violence against women, women’s economic rights, state accountability under CEDAW, principles of universality and cultural identity and the international, regional and NGO strategies available; appendices include descriptions of the UN complaint procedures and of the UN’s human machinery.

United Nations: Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.United Nations, 1980

[ab: Contains the text of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.]


Contains a downloadable pack of 100 ideas for energisers.

Website for Amnesty International. Contains link to contains all the relevant information for the SVAW campaign.

The Association for Women’s Rights in Development (AWID) is an international membership organization connecting, informing and mobilizing people and organizations committed to achieving gender equality, sustainable development and women's Human Rights.


French: http://fr/

UNIFEM is the women's fund at the United Nations. It provides financial and technical assistance to innovative programs and strategies that promote women's Human Rights, political participation and economic security

Information and resources on the promotion of gender equality throughout the United Nations System

International source of funding for population and reproductive health programs. Includes support for programs that help combat VAW.




Working for the protection and promotion of the Human Rights of women around the world

Project of International Women’s Tribune Centre which markets and distributes books on women and development with a focus on the perspectives of women from the Global South

International advocacy organization that seeks to increase the power of women as policy makers

Human Rights Watch is an organisation dedicated to protect the Human Rights of people around the world. There website has a section devoted to Women’s Rights.




STOPVAW is a site developed by Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights as a tool for the promotion of women's Human Rights in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The site was developed with support from and in consultation with the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) and the Open Society Institute's Network Women's Program (OSI). This site addresses VAW as one of the most pervasive Human Rights abuses worldwide. is a grassroots, interactive community by, for and about women. We aim to facilitate information-sharing among women and encourage mobilization around political issues. The website has a useful section on anti-violence resources


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