Document - Weekly Update Service 44/92 (includes three additions)

AI Index: NWS 11/44/92

Distr: SC/PO

No. of words: 1320

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Amnesty International

International Secretariat

1 Easton Street

London WC1X 8DJ

United Kingdom


TO: PRESS OFFICERS


FROM: PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS


DATE: 3 NOVEMBER 1992


WEEKLY UPDATE SERVICE 44/92


Contained in this weekly update is an external item on Sudan.


India Mission


The dates of a high-level mission to India have been confirmed for 15-22 November. The composition of AI's delegation and the programme of the visit have yet to be confirmed. We will keep you posted on developments.


1. NEWS INITIATIVES


INTERNATIONAL NEWS RELEASES


Turkey - 11 November (New Information)


There will be a weekly update with new information about deaths in custody sent out later this week which will be embargoed for 11 November and may be used in conjunction with the news release.


In case sections intend to reprint the Turkey document (AI Index: EUR 44/75/92), please note that there is an error on page 16. The subtitle should read "Human rights abuses by armed opposition groups" (not violations).


Document to go with the news release and action, Turkey: Walls of glass (AI Index: EUR 44/75/92), has been sent in the Weekly Mailing. Unfortunately it has been printed without an embargo - the document is nevertheless embargoed and should not be used before 11 November. The news release should be with you tomorrow.


The document and news release go with a section level action about a wide range of human rights violations, including torture, extrajudicial executions and "disappearances".


China - 9 December


International news release to accompany document on torture in China.

TARGETED AND LIMITED NEWS RELEASES


Forthcoming weekly updates which the IS will be sending to specialist media include: China, 13 November; Djibouti, tentatively 25 November; Burundi, 27 November. More information to follow.


SECTION INITIATIVES


Australian Section


On 3 November, the Australian Section contacted their Indonesian ambassador and asked for his personal assistance in obtaining permission for an AI visit to East Timor on the anniversary of the Santa Cruz massacre on 12 November. AI feels it particularly important for a delegation to be in East Timor at this time - reports of increased tension between the military and the population have heightened international fears of renewed human rights violations. The section clarified that the objective of such a visit would be to observe the human rights situation. The Indonesian ambassador replied yesterday and permission was refused.


On 6 November an AI Australia press statement will be released to international media in Sydney. It will provide details of why AI has asked to visit East Timor on 12 November and note the refusal of the request. The section news release will be sent out to other sections as soon as it is ready (hopefully today in a note to press officers).


AI's Deputy Secretary General yesterday sent a fax to the Indonesian Foreign Minister, Ali Alatas, formally requesting permission to visit East Timor during and after 12 November.


A weekly update about recently reported human rights violations in East Timor is currently being written and should be with you on Friday. The Australian Section intends to release this to media on 9 November.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92


2. AFR 54/WU 03/92 EXTERNAL

4 November 1992


SUDAN: BOTH SIDES COMMITTING GRAVE ABUSES IN THE SOUTH SAYS AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL


"The deteriorating human rights situation in the war zones of Sudan is a challenge the international community must face up to", Amnesty International said today. "It is time for the world to intensify pressure on the Sudan government and all factions of the armed opposition Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) to take immediate concrete action to end human rights abuses".


Despite international appeals, the government has failed to account for hundreds of people arrested in the southern city of Juba between June and August 1992. But it is known that over 300 people were extrajudicially executed and there is now considerable fear for the lives of those detained. Meanwhile, in September, the SPLA summarily killed three foreign aid-workers and a journalist.


"These killings are the latest in a series of grave human rights abuses by all parties to the war in Sudan", said Amnesty International. "Over the past year thousands of people have been victims of extrajudicial executions by the government or deliberate and arbitrary killings by the SPLA. Both have shown a callous disregard for the human rights of civilians."


The extrajudicial executions and detentions by government forces in Juba came after SPLA assaults on the town penetrated government defences. Government forces took arbitrary action against any person suspected of sympathising with the SPLA.


The Sudan government has denied this. However, the authorities have confirmed that Andrew Tombe, an employee of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and Mark Laboke Jenner, who worked for the European Commission, were executed for alleged treason in mid-August.


"The government claims these executions followed the due process of law. If they were tried at all, they were tried by a military court which past experience shows would have fallen far short of international standards of fair trial", said Amnesty International. "We are deeply concerned for the safety of other civilians arrested in Juba and believe that the government's failure to account for them may well mean they have been extrajudicially executed."


The armed opposition SPLA has also been responsible for numerous and widespread human rights abuses although the exact circumstances of the recent killings by SPLA soldiers of foreign aid-workers and a journalist remain unclear. Those who died were Myint Maung, a Burmese doctor working with the United Nations Childrens' Fund (UNICEF), Tron Helge Hummelvoll, a Norwegian journalist, Francis Ngure, a Kenyan driver working with UNICEF, and Vilma Gomez, a Filipino nurse working with the US-based relief organization Interaid.


Autopsies revealed that Francis Ngure and Vilma Gomez were both killed by single gunshots to the head. Myint Maung and Tron Helge Hummelvoll were both killed by multiple gunshots fired from behind at close range.


The SPLA's Torit faction, led by John Garang, has accused troops loyal to a dissident group led by William Nyuon Bany, John Garang's former deputy, of responsibility for the killings. But independent observers have questioned this and accused the SPLA of trying to mount a cover-up. "We utterly condemn these and other deliberate and arbitrary killings by the SPLA," Amnesty International said.


The killings, the first of foreign aid workers by the SPLA, have disrupted humanitarian efforts to assist hundreds of thousands of southern Sudanese civilians displaced by the war. They underline the relationship between human rights abuse and humanitarian disaster in the Sudan.


This incident is the latest in a series of serious human rights abuses by the SPLA in southern Sudan. In mid-November 1991, SPLA troops loyal to the breakaway Nasir faction, led by Riek Machar, killed over 2,000 Dinka civilians in an assault on Bor, the home area of John Garang. In January 1992, Nasir faction forces deliberately and arbitrarily killed 87 civilians in the Dinka village of Pagarau in Bahr al-Ghazal. In each case tens of thousands of civilians fled their homes to become displaced and dependent on international relief.


Following the massacres in Bor, Amnesty International was told by a leader of the Nasir faction of the SPLA that an investigation would be carried out, but none is known to have occurred and no action has been taken to prevent further mass killings.


Amnesty International is calling on the leaders of all parties to the conflict in Sudan to take immediate steps to halt human rights abuses by their forces. "The government must account for the hundreds of people taken into detention in Juba between June and August 1992," Amnesty International said, "and put an immediate stop to extrajudicial executions. For its part, the SPLA also has an obligation to observe basic humane standards and to take action against those responsible for deliberate and arbitrary killings and other grave abuses.


"The need for decisive action on human rights in Sudan has never been greater. The world community must also accept its responsibility to ensure that human rights are not violated in Sudan".

AI Index: NWS 11/44/92 ADD

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No. of words: 2445

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Amnesty International

International Secretariat

1 Easton Street

London WC1X 8DJ

United Kingdom


TO: PRESS OFFICERS


FROM: PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS


DATE: 5 NOVEMBER 1992


ADDITION WEEKLY UPDATE SERVICE 44/92


Contained in this addition to the weekly update are external items on Peru, Turkey (embargoed for 11 November), and East Timor.


India Mission


The dates of a high-level mission to India have been confirmed for 15-22 November. The composition of AI's delegation and the programme of the visit have yet to be confirmed. We will keep you posted on developments.


1. NEWS INITIATIVES


INTERNATIONAL NEWS RELEASES


Turkey - 11 November (New Information)


Included in this weekly update is an item with new information about deaths in custody which will be embargoed for 11 November and may be used in conjunction with the news release.


The document and news release go with a section level action should have been received by all sections.


China - 9 December


International news release to accompany document on torture in China.


TARGETED AND LIMITED NEWS RELEASES


Forthcoming weekly updates which the IS will be sending to specialist media include: China, 13 November; Djibouti, confirmed 3 December (date changed); Burundi, 27 November. More information to follow.


SECTION INITIATIVES


Australian Section


Included in this weekly update is an item on East Timor which is an Australian Section news release - please see Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 sent 4 November for details.


A weekly update about recently reported human rights violations in East Timor is currently being written and will hopefully be with you on Friday. The Australian Section intends to release this to media on 9 November.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD


2. AMR 46/WU 04/92 EXTERNAL

5 November 1992


INTERNAL


Please note that the attached letter to President Alberto Fujimori is external and may be given to media.


EDAI - please note that this item has been translated into Spanish already by the IS language team and should have been sent to you by them.

___________________________________________________________________________EXTERNAL


PERU: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL URGES GOVERNMENT NOT TO EXTEND THE DEATH PENALTY


Amnesty International wrote to President Alberto Fujimori on 4 November urging him not to extend the scope of the death penalty in Peru. It is currently applicable only for acts of treason committed in times of war with a foreign power. The letter was sent to the President following his declarations that the government is to withdraw from its obligations to abide by the death penalty clauses enshrined in the American Convention on Human Rights ratified by Peru in 1978.


Amnesty International believes that by taking such a step the Government of Peru would seriously undermine the protection of the right to life -- one of the central tenets of the Convention -- and the spirit in which the American system for the protection of human rights has been strengthened over the past two decades.


Amnesty International considers the death penalty and extrajudicial executions by the State, and execution-like killings by armed opposition groups, to be a violation of the right to life and the most serious example of cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment.


In the letter the organization also expressed its unqualified opposition to the deliberate and arbitrary killings by the armed opposition of defenceless civilians not directly involved in Peru's internal armed conflict. By the end of October these atrocities, including the execution-like killing of captives, continued to be perpetrated by the Partido Comunista del Perú (Sendero Luminoso), PCP, Communist Party of Peru (Shining Path). According to reports, in one week alone -- between 30 September and 5 October 1992 -- members of the PCP killed Carlos Huamán Maguña, a judge; Giullio Rocca Olliani, an Italian priest; Eugenio Cruz Salvador, a mayor; Jacinto Luna Julca and Juan Moisés Ramírez Ruiz, college director and teacher respectively; and Félix Romero Martín, an administrator at a pig farm.

The full text of the letter to President Fujimori reads as follows:


Señor Presidente de la República,

I would like to express the deep concern of Amnesty International on learning that the President has publicly stated that the government is to take the necessary steps to denounce clauses on the death penalty enshrined in the American Convention on Human Rights, also referred to as the Pact of San José de Costa Rica. The organization understands that the government will be taking such steps in order that the Peruvian state may put into effect legislation which provides for the death penalty for serious criminal acts, such as acts of treason.


As a matter of principle, Amnesty International opposes the death penalty by all appropriate means, considering it to be a violation of the right to life and the most serious example of cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment by the State. The organization considers it to be a penalty which violates basic human rights and which does not fulfil any penal objective which could not be achieved equally by less severe penalties.


In past years Amnesty International has called for the abolition of the death penalty in countries from every region in the world, including where armed opposition groups have perpetrated large scale atrocities, such as Cambodia and Mozambique. In both these countries their governments abolished the death penalty for all crimes at a time when armed opposition groups within their territories were carrying out widespread killings of non-combatant civilians.


As you know, since 1983 the organization has repeatedly and firmly condemned the torture and killing of people held captive by the armed opposition in Peru. Following a decision taken by Amnesty International in September 1991 to extend its condemnation of such abuses, the organization has expressed its unqualified opposition to the arbitrary and deliberate killing by these groups of defenceless civilians not directly involved in the armed conflict, and of the killing of members of the security forces who are hors de combat, or who have been incapacitated, have surrendered or have been detained. In the context of these and other persistent atrocities by the armed opposition Your Excellency and some sectors of Peruvian society have now called for the death penalty.


Amnesty International, however, would like to draw the President's attention to the fact that numerous studies carried out on the death penalty have not proved that it has a deterrent value greater than that of other penalties. A study by the UN in 1980 concluded: `In spite of advanced investigative studies undertaken to determine the deterrent value of the death penalty, no conclusive proof of its efficiency has been obtained'. Amnesty International's opposition to the death penalty is worldwide and unconditional; neither the circumstances, manner nor motives surrounding a criminal act justifies the use of this penalty, be the accused a member of an armed opposition group, of the state's security forces, or of any other sector of society.


Eighty three countries across all five continents -- almost half the countries in the world -- are today abolitionist, whether in legislation or in practice. Since 1976 the pro-abolitionist movement has grown considerably: on average two countries per year have abolished the death penalty totally or for all but exceptional crimes. Among those states which since then have added their names to this movement are Argentina, Brazil, Canada, El Salvador, Haiti, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru in the Americas; Cape Verde, Namibia, Mozambique and San Tomé and Príncipe in Africa; Cambodia, Nepal and the Philippines in Asia; Australia, Fiji and New Zealand in Australasia; and 17 countries in Europe, including France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Romania and Spain.


Latin America has been at the forefront of the world abolitionist movement. Your country has played an important part in this movement. On 28 July 1978 Peru ratified the American Convention on Human Rights, and thereby acknowledged its respect for the right to life (Article 4), including the clauses which state: "The death penalty will not be reestablished in states which have abolished it" (Article 4.3) ".... Its application shall not be extended to crimes to which it does not presently apply" (Article 4.2); and "In no case shall capital punishment be inflicted for political offences or related common crimes" (Article 4.4). On 15 December 1989, Peru was one of the states which, by a majority vote at the UN General Assembly, favoured the adoption of a second optional protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights for the abolition of the death penalty. Peru is also a member of the Organization of American States which, in its General Assembly of 4-9 June 1990, decided to adopt without a vote the protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights relating to the abolition of the death penalty. That decision was indeed adopted in accordance with the essence of Article 4 of the American Convention on Human Rights, and of the spirit in which the American system for the protection of human rights has been developed and strengthened throughout the region over the past two decades.


In the light of the above commendable record by the Peruvian state in taking a stand against the death penalty, Amnesty International respectfully urges Your Excellency to reconsider the public declarations you have made in favour of such a penalty and to use your power to ensure that it is definitively abolished in Peruvian legislation.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD


3. EUR 44/WU 08/92 EXTERNAL

5 November 1992


INTERNAL


Please note that the following item is embargoed until 11 November - it is updated information since the Turkey news release was written and may be used in conjunction with the news release.

___________________________________________________________________________

EXTERNAL


TURKEY: FURTHER ALLEGATIONS OF DEATH BY TORTURE


In a single week at the end of October there have been three further deaths in Turkish police stations, apparently resulting from torture. Amnesty International has written to the Turkish Government urging that prompt, impartial investigations into these deaths should take place, and that effective safeguards should be established for detainees in police stations and gendarmeries.


Ramazan Altunsöz was taken from his home and interrogated at Batman Police Headquarters on 21 October. After a week in incommunicado detention, he was taken to hospital and treated for gastritis, before being returned for further interrogation. Three days later, on 31 October, his body was returned to his family and the local governor announced that he had died of "diseases of the stomach and kidney". The official medical cause of death was given as "haemorrhage of the lungs and acute gastritis" but his family photographed bruises and other marks on his chest, shoulder, armpits, arms and knee after his death. Ramazan Altunsöz was the third person to die following interrogation at Batman Police Headquarters this year.


Tahir Saday had been head man of Sugeldi village, near Çatak, Van, for 25 years. He was detained and threatened because of his refusal, and the refusal of three of the five districts of his village, to participate in the village guard system. On 20 October, he made his own way to the Gendarmerie Headquarters in Van after being called for questioning there. The villagers had no news of him until 26 October when they were told that he had died of a heart condition. One of the villagers who went to collect his body reported that there was blood around the mouth and nose, and bruises on the back and arms. These injuries reportedly do not appear on the autopsy report. Tahir Saday's family have made a formal complaint to the public prosecutor and demanded a second autopsy. Since Tahir Saday's death, his family, and a number of other families who have refused to join the village guard corps, have left Sugeldi, apparently fearing further reprisals.


Batman and Van are two of the 10 provinces in southeast Turkey which are under emergency legislation. Any complaints brought against members of the security forces in these provinces are initially referred to the local governorate (which is also responsible for police affairs). Legal proceedings cannot begin without the governorate's approval.


On 23 October there was a police operation following the robbery of a warehouse in Adana. Newspaper reports have linked the robbery with the Turkish Revolutionary Communist Union (TIKB). One of the alleged robbers was shot dead and two suspects, Remzi Basalak and Mustafa Yaşar, both previously tried for membership of TIKB, were taken into custody the same day. They were shown to members of the press who witnessed that Remzi Basalak was in sound health - he shouted slogans and kicked a table. He died the same day, but his death was concealed from the family and lawyers until it was revealed in the newspapers four days later. His autopsy was carried out in secret. The body was returned to the family, and when washing it for burial it was noticed that the tongue had apparently been torn out and that there were abnormal swellings in the abdomen.


During 1992 at least 12 people have died in circumstances strongly suggesting that the deaths resulted from torture. To Amnesty International's knowledge, not a single prosecution has been initiated.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD


4. ASA 21/WU 04/92 EXTERNAL

5 November 1992


EMBARGO: (Sydney) 00.01am November 6, 1992


AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL REFUSED ACCESS TO EAST TIMOR FOR ANNIVERSARY OF SANTA CRUZ MASSACRE


Amnesty International today expressed regret that Indonesia's ambassador to Australia, Mr Sabam Siagian has refused to help an Amnesty International observation team to visit East Timor on the grounds that "it would create problems...for the Timorese people".


Amnesty International contacted the ambassador on 3 November 1992 asking him to intervene personally to allow the organization to observe the human rights situation in East Timor over the period of the anniversary of the Dili massacre.


Amnesty International believes that heightened tensions around the anniversary of the Dili Massacre on November 12 have increased the need for an independent humanitarian presence in the former Portuguese colony. "The refusal to allow the recent Australian Parliamentary delegation access to East Timor on "security" grounds is an indication of this tension and the consequent need for the presence of an independent observation team", the organisation said.


Earlier this year the Indonesian government endorsed a statement by the United Nations Commission on Human Rights - of which Indonesia is a member - which requested it to "facilitate access to East Timor for additional humanitarian and human rights organisations". In its application, Amnesty International asked Ambassador Siagian for his help in implementing the spirit behind this statement.


One year after the Santa Cruz Massacre in which at least 100 people were killed by Indonesian security forces and after which at least another 100 remain missing, there is serious concern, amidst reports of continuing violations in East Timor, that human rights abuses will increase around the anniversary of the massacre.


Amnesty International has therefore offered to send a mission to observe the implementation of the human rights commitments by the Indonesian government.


Commenting on Ambassador Siagian's position, Amnesty International Campaign Director, Andre Frankovits said, "this denial of access to East Timor, together with the suggestion that the motives of the Australian parliamentary delegation also recently denied access were to "stir up trouble", puts in question Indonesia's commitment to the decisions of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights".

AI Index: NWS 11/44/92 ADD2

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No. of words: 1444

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Amnesty International

International Secretariat

1 Easton Street

London WC1X 8DJ

United Kingdom


TO: PRESS OFFICERS


FROM: PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS


DATE: 6 NOVEMBER 1992


2ND ADDITION TO WEEKLY UPDATE SERVICE 44/92


Contained in this second addition to the weekly update are external items on East Timor, Liberia and Angola.


India Mission


The dates of a high-level mission to India have been confirmed for 15-22 November. The composition of AI's delegation and the programme of the visit have yet to be confirmed. We will keep you posted on developments.


1. NEWS INITIATIVES


INTERNATIONAL NEWS RELEASES


Turkey - 11 November (New Information)


Included in this weekly update is an item with new information about deaths in custody which will be embargoed for 11 November and may be used in conjunction with the news release.


The document and news release go with a section level action should have been received by all sections.


China - 9 December


International news release to accompany document on torture in China.


TARGETED AND LIMITED NEWS RELEASES


Forthcoming weekly updates which the IS will be sending to specialist media include: China, 13 November; Djibouti, confirmed 3 December (date changed); Burundi, 27 November. More information to follow.


SECTION INITIATIVES


Australian Section


Included in this weekly update is an item on East Timor embargoed for Monday 9 November when the Australian Section plans to release it to international media. Please see Addition to Weekly Update (NWS 11/44/92 ADD) sent 5 November for an Australian Section press release on East Timor which was released to international media today. Also see Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 sent 4 November for further details of Australian Section initiative on East Timor.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD2


2. ASA 21/WU 05/92 EXTERNAL

EMBARGOED FOR MONDAY 9 NOVEMBER


INDONESIA/EAST TIMOR: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL FEARS FURTHER DETERIORATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS SITUATION


Amnesty International said today that the human rights situation in East Timor has not improved in the year since the Santa Cruz massacre, and that it will inevitably deteriorate further without fundamental changes in the Indonesian Government's policies and practices. The organization said the government had failed utterly to honour the letter and spirit of various United Nations statements and recommendations with respect to East Timor.


Summarizing the worsening human rights situation over the past twelve months, Amnesty International noted that:


● In the weeks prior to the anniversary of the massacre, the authorities arrested hundreds of suspected supporters of East Timor's independence to prevent them from publicly and peacefully expressing their political views.


● Torture and ill-treatment of political detainees continues to be both common and routine, and, despite its earlier promise to do so, the government has made little apparent effort to implement the recommendations of the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, whose report was published earlier this year.


● The government has sealed off the territory, preventing visits by international delegations and journalists, and most recently denying access to Amnesty International, although it had been urged by the UN Commission on Human Rights (UN-CHR) in March to "facilitate access to East Timor for additional humanitarian and human rights organizations."


● Despite the UN-CHR's expressed hope that it would do so, the government has failed to account for as many as 100 people who "disappeared," and has still identified only 19 of the more than 100 who were killed during and after the massacre.


● The government has meted out sentences up to life imprisonment to more than a dozen East Timorese for their peaceful political activities, in trials which made a mockery of international standards of fairness.


● In contrast to these heavy sentences, after the massacre the government brought only a few low-ranking soldiers to trial, all but one for disciplinary offences, and none received a sentence longer than 18 months.


On the occasion of the first anniversary of the Santa Cruz massacre, Amnesty International called on the Indonesian Government to demonstrate its stated commitment to the future protection of human rights with concrete measures. It said that idle promises could no longer satisfy the international community.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD2


3. AFR 34/WU 01/92 EXTERNAL

6 November 1992


INTERNAL


The following is an external for response item. It may be distributed to media and others who ask about our position on this particular case, but we do not intend to actively seek publicity on this issue.

___________________________________________________________________________

EXTERNAL


LIBERIA: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL CONCERNED BY KILLINGS OF NUNS


Amnesty International said today it was gravely concerned by the recent killing of five Roman Catholic nuns by armed men in Liberia's capital, Monrovia, and by reports that four Roman Catholic novices have gone missing. It said it was also deeply concerned about reports that as many as 300 children who have been made orphans during Liberia's conflict have been taken away by National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) forces and may also now be at grave risk.


The five nuns, all United States nationals, are said to have been seized and summarily killed between 20 and 22 October during an assault on Monrovia by forces supporting Charles Taylor's NPFL, which controls much of Liberia. Monrovia's Roman Catholic archbishop, Michael Francis, is reported to have said that four Roman Catholic novices, all Liberian nationals, have also gone missing, amid fears that they may have been killed or detained by NPFL forces. Their situation, and that of the 300 Liberian orphans said to have been taken away by the NPFL remains unclear.

"We utterly condemn the deliberate and arbitrary killing of the nuns", Amnesty International said, "and we are very concerned about the situation of the Liberian novices and orphans. We call on the NPFL to clarify urgently whether they are in its custody and, if so, to guarantee their safety."


Amnesty International made this call while reiterating its appeal to all parties to the Liberian conflict to respect human rights and basic humanitarian standards.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD2


4. AFR 12/WU 03/92 EXTERNAL

6 November 1992


ANGOLA: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL APPEALS FOR HALT TO GROSS ABUSES


In the face of escalating violence in Angola this week, Amnesty International is today calling on both the Angolan Government and UNITA forces to act immediately to halt human rights abuses.


In Luanda, the government forces have been responsible for a wave of killings of suspected União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola (UNITA), National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, supporters. These killings followed fierce fighting which broke out on 30 November 1992 between government forces and armed UNITA members leaving a death toll estimated at over 1000 in Luanda alone.


Reports received by Amnesty International so far indicate that dozens of UNITA officials have been arrested by government forces, of whom several may have died or been killed in custody. Many suspected UNITA supporters were reportedly captured and deliberately killed by civilian supporters of the government, to whom the government had distributed arms.


Amnesty International has also received reports that UNITA has carried out numerous deliberate killings in Luanda and elsewhere and that it is holding prisoners and hostages. However, little information is available from areas outside Luanda. A cease-fire arranged on Sunday 1 November was broken early on Monday morning, but an uneasy calm returned to the city on Tuesday.


Eyewitnesses who have seen corpses of UNITA members in the streets of Luanda say they had their wrists or ankles bound, indicating that they had been taken prisoner and then executed. There are also reports that some government paramilitary police have carried out extrajudicial executions.


Amnesty International is seeking information about the reported arrests of other senior UNITA officials. José Abilheira, a UNITA economic adviser, was reportedly arrested by police at his home on 2 November as civilians hostile to UNITA threatened to force their way into his apartment building. He was reportedly held in the Central Police Station in Luanda. Those arrested are said to include at least four leaders of opposition parties which had supported UNITA's claims that the September elections were unfair. Those arrested included Paulino Pinto João, the leader of the Convenção Nacional Democrática de Angola, Angolan National Democratic Convention, a former MPLA official. He appeared on television on 4 November, apparently showing signs of ill-treatment and "confessed" to links with UNITA, although it was not clear whether or not he had been charged with any criminal offence or whether he had access to defence counsel. Paulino Pinto João and the three other party leaders, who appear to have been prisoners of conscience, were released on 3 November.


Amnesty International is urging the Angolan government to ensure that those in custody are protected against torture or ill-treatment and that all reports of extrajudicial executions and other human rights violations are thoroughly and independently investigated and the perpetrators are brought to justice. It is also calling on UNITA to release anyone held hostage and to halt deliberate and arbitrary killings.

AI Index: NWS 11/44/92 ADD3

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No. of words: 2047

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Amnesty International

International Secretariat

1 Easton Street

London WC1X 8DJ

United Kingdom


TO: PRESS OFFICERS


FROM: PRESS AND PUBLICATIONS


DATE: 10 NOVEMBER 1992


3RD ADDITION TO WEEKLY UPDATE SERVICE 44/92


Contained in this third addition to the weekly update are external items on Pakistan, Turkey, Jordan and Trinidad & Tobago and an internal item on Turkey.


1. NEWS INITIATIVES


INTERNATIONAL NEWS RELEASES


*Turkey - 11 November* (New Information)


Included in this weekly update is an internal and an external item with new information which is embargoed for 11 November and may be used in conjunction with the news release.


There has been a flood of new reports of various human rights violations in Turkey in the past week - following is a list of Urgent Actions (UA) and other external materials produced by the research team in the past few days:


UA - EUR 44/114/92; UA - EUR 44/113/92; UA - EUR 44/114/92; UA - EUR 44/115/92; UA - EUR 44/116/92; TURKRAN - EUR 44/118/92 (which will be sent out by fax/tlx/e-mail as a note to press officers today) and Weekly Update EUR 44/WU 08/92 (sent in NWS 11/44/92 ADD - first addition).


China - 9 December


International news release to accompany document on torture in China.


TARGETED AND LIMITED NEWS RELEASES


Forthcoming weekly updates which the IS will be sending to specialist media include: China, 13 November; Djibouti, confirmed 3 December (date changed); Burundi, 27 November. More information to follow.


SECTION INITIATIVES


British Section - Mandate Review


During the mandate review process, the British Section carried out an extensive consultation exercise to solicit the views of groups and members. Subsequently a Working Group has reviewed and evaluated that exercise. Their conclusions may be of interest to other sections, and of practical help in planning and implementing similar consultations in future.


Copies of the report are available from the British Section. Please contact Jo Morris, Director's Office, AI British Section, 99 Rosebery Ave., London EC1R 4RE.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD3


2. ASA 33/WU 04/92 EXTERNAL

10 November 1992


PAKISTAN: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL OPPOSES DEATH SENTENCE IMPOSED FOR BLASPHEMY


Amnesty International is greatly concerned that Gul Masih, a Christian, has been sentenced to death in Sargoda, Punjab Province, after being tried for blasphemy against the Prophet Mohammad. Gul Masih is the first person to be sentenced since the death penalty became mandatory for this offence in mid-1991.


Amnesty International believes that Gul Masih is a prisoner of conscience who has been imprisoned and sentenced to death on account of his religious beliefs. It is urging the Government of Pakistan to intervene immediately to set aside his death sentence and order his unconditional release from custody.


Gul Masih was arrested on 10 December 1991, a few days after he had refused to support a Muslim League candidate in local elections. A campaign worker for the Muslim League is reported to have quarrelled with Gul Masih, and then to have been encouraged by local Muslim clergy to file a case of blasphemy against Gul Masih. Local human rights groups and Gul Masih maintain that the dispute did not involve any blasphemous reference to the Prophet Mohammad.


Charges of blasphemy have been used by Muslim activists in Pakistan against other religious minorities. Amnesty International knows of more than a dozen cases of alleged blasphemy pending before the courts; prisoners charged with blasphemy cannot be released on bail. Reports received by the organization indicate that in all cases there has been a strong background of personal enmity on the part of the complainant against the member of the religious minority accused of blasphemy.


The Pakistan Federal Cabinet amended the Pakistan Penal Code in mid-1991 to make the death penalty mandatory for the offence of "defiling" the name of the Prophet Mohammad. At that time Amnesty International expressed its concern that the amendment could be used against members of religious minorities for the exercise of their religious beliefs, and urged the Government of Pakistan to withdraw the amendment.


Amnesty International opposes any legislation under which people are held as prisoners of conscience on account of their political affiliation, religious beliefs, ethnic origin, sex, colour or language. It also opposes the death penalty in all cases as a violation of the right to life and the ultimate form of cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment.


Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD3


3. EUR 44/WU 09/92 EXTERNAL

Embargoed for 11 November 1992


TURKEY: UPDATE TO "TURKEY - WALLS OF GLASS"


Following is updated information about cases referred to in Amnesty International's publication "Turkey - Walls of Glass" (AI Index: EUR 44/75/92), embargoed for 11 November 1992.


Turkish official warns of security crackdown to follow cross-border operation in Northern Iraq - fears for safety of detainees.


On 5 November 1992 Reuters reported that Emergency Region Governor Ünal Erkan (responsible for the 10 provinces under emergency rule in southeast Turkey) had told reporters that he expected a crack-down on suspected members of armed opposition groups inside Turkey as soon as the cross-border operation in Iraq was concluded: "After the operation, the time will come for inside Turkey".


The Emergency Region Governor was speaking from Batman, where three detainees have died in custody this year, apparently as a result of torture, in the context of operations against suspected members of the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK). The most recent was Ramazan Altunsöz who died on or about 31 October 1992 during interrogation at Batman Police Headquarters.


Amnesty International is concerned that, in the absence of independent investigations into the wave of allegations of extrajudicial killings in the area and proper safeguards against torture and ill-treatment - a crackdown as envisaged by the Emergency Region Governor may result in further dramatic deterioration in the human rights situation in southeast Turkey.


Families of "disappeared" on hunger strike in Ankara


Update to case of Hasan Gülünay ("Turkey: Additional Appeal Cases" (AI Index: EUR 44/94/92).


Birşen Gülünay, wife of Hasan Gülünay who "disappeared" in July 1992, is on the seventh day of an indefinite hunger-strike at the Ankara Branch of the Turkish Human Rights Association. Among the hunger strikers, who are demanding information from the authorities about the fate of six people alleged to have "disappeared" in İstanbul since October 1991, are Iren Özbek (60) mother of Tuğrul Özbek who "disappeared" on 10 October 1992 [see UA 342/92 AI Index: EUR 44/115/92] and Hatice Toraman (47), mother of Hüseyin Toraman [AI Index: EUR 44/07/92].

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD3


4. MDE 16/WU 04/92 EXTERNAL

10 November


JORDAN: STATE SECURITY TRIAL ENDS WITH NO RIGHT OF APPEAL


On 10 November 1992 the State Security Court in Amman convicted four defendants and sentenced them to between 10 and 20 years' imprisonment. The four are Leith Shubeilat and Ya'coub Qarrash, two members of Parliament, and Ahmad al-Ayubi and 'Abd al-Hamid Idkidek, two shop owners.


The defendants were arrested in August and brought to trial on

28 September on charges including membership of an illegal organization, Harakat shabab al-nafir al-islami, the Movement of the Youth of the Islamic Call to Arms, and the capital offences of possession of weapons and explosives. Leith Shubeilat was also charged with insulting Parliament and the King. Amnesty International delegates observed sessions of the trial.


The State Security Court sentenced Leith Shubeilat and Ya'cub Qarrash to 20 years' imprisonment, and Ahmad al-Ayubi and 'Abd al-Hamid Idkidek to 10 years' imprisonment. Defendants have no right to appeal to a higher court, contrary to the international human rights treaties ratified by Jordan. The verdict will now be reviewed by the Prime Minister, who is empowered to reduce or increase the sentence or order a retrial.


"The absence of the right of appeal before the State Security Court remains as a major blemish on an otherwise impressive record of human rights reforms in Jordan", Amnesty International said. "It casts doubt on Jordan's full commitment to the international human rights treaties to which it is a party, which enshrine this basic right. Without this right, no defendant tried by the State Security Court can be said to have had a fair trial."


The State Security Court, composed by three military judges, was formed in 1991 by the Prime Minister on the basis of a 1959 law. The law allows for such a court to be set up "in special circumstances required by the public interest". The State Security Court largely took over the jurisdiction of the Martial Law Court, which was abolished when martial law was lifted in April 1992.


A new law on the State Security Court proposed by the government in July 1991 and passed by Parliament in the following months included the introduction of the right of appeal to the Court of Cassation against verdicts of the State Security Court. However, the law was vetoed by King Hussein bin Talal in November 1991. The King's objections to the new law included the introduction of the right of appeal. Parliament is due to reconsider the law during its session scheduled to start in December 1992.

In order to override the King's veto, the new law will need to be passed by a two-thirds majority of the members of each of the two Houses of Parliament.


Amnesty International is calling for he right of appeal to be introduced without further delay and provided to all defendants before the State Security Court.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD3


5. AMR 49/WU 01/92 EXTERNAL

9 November 1992


INTERNAL


This item was issued to Caribbean media yesterday.


EXTERNAL


TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO: AMNESTY INTERNATIONAL CONDEMNS RESUMPTION OF EXECUTIONS


Three men, Gayman Jurisingh, Peter Matthews and Faizal Mohammed, are scheduled to be executed in the early morning of Tuesday 10 November 1992. They have been on death row since June 1982, February 1984 and February 1982 respectively.


"We strongly condemn this attempt to resume executions in Trinidad and Tobago after 13 years," said Amnesty International. "We are also concerned that the three men may have not been informed of their right to petition the United Nations Human Rights Committee".


"Furthermore, we have serious concerns that international standards requiring fair trial within a reasonable time were not respected in the case of Peter Matthews. Although sentenced in February 1984, he was reportedly charged in August 1978, which would indicate a delay of nearly six years in the proceedings".


As Trinidad and Tobago is a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and its Optional Protocol, prisoners can submit their cases to the United Nations Human Rights Committee for their consideration. Although prisoners in Trinidad and Tobago have done this in the past, none of the three men due to be executed have done so.


In 1990 a Commission of Inquiry into Capital Punishment submitted a report to President Noor Hassanali which recommended among other things that prisoners sentenced to death over 10 years ago should have their sentences commuted to life imprisonment. "It is very disappointing that the government has decided to execute these men, is spite of this recommendation", said Amnesty International.


These recommendations were reportedly accepted by both the government then in power and the new government, elected in December 1992.

Weekly Update NWS 11/44/92 ADD3


6. EUR 44/WU 10/92 INTERNAL - FOR RESPONSE ONLY

Embargoed for 11 November 1992


Arrests of alleged Hizbullah members in Şanlıurfa linked to killing of Hüseyin Deniz [see Turkey - Walls of Glass, p 14, AI Index: EUR 44/75/92; see also UA 262/92, AI Index: EUR 44/72/92].


INTERNAL


TURKEY: HIZBULLAH MEMBERS ARRESTED


In mid-October nine alleged members of Hizbullah were captured and charged in connection with the wounding of a board member of the local People's Labour Party (HEP), and the killing of two others, one of whom was also a HEP member. Şanlıurfa Police announced to the press that they were now looking for a person allegedly named by detainees as the assassin of Hüseyin Deniz, the Özgür Gündem journalist shot on 9 August 1992. Of the nine taken into custody for interrogation by the police, four have been remanded in custody, while five were released. They will all be tried at Diyarbakır State Security Court.


Although there have been well over a hundred political killings since November 1991 which have been attributed to members of Hizbullah, a shadowy organization in southeast Turkey, there have been very few arrests of alleged Hizbullah members, and some evidence suggesting that Hizbullah assassins are protected by the police.


A Şanlıurfa politician expressed to Amnesty International the view that these arrests apparently indicated a will, particularly in the local governor's office, to halt the killings in the area, but that this could only be effective if the proper legal steps were taken. Trials in Turkey usually last at least a year, and Amnesty International will not be in a position fully to assess this latest development until the legal proceedings have been completed.

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