Document - "Destino desconocido": "desaparecidos" en la ex Yugoslavia: casos



@'An Unknown Destination'

"Disappeared" in former Yugoslavia

Case sheets


Vukovar, a small town in eastern Croatia with a multi-ethnic population of Croats, Serbs, Hungarians, Ruthenes, Ukranians and others, was the scene of the earliest mass "disappearance" in the former Yugoslavia.


In August 1991, after the June declaration of independence by the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), the town came under heavy attack from Serbian irregular troops supported by the Yugoslav National Army (JNA). The siege lasted until 18 November, when Croatian forces defending the town surrendered.


Following the surrender, an agreement was signed by the commander of the JNA and the Croatian Government under the supervision of the European Community Monitoring Mission (ECMM) according to which patients and medical personnel would be evacuated from the town's hospital under the supervision of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC). However, on 19 November, forces of the JNA accompanied by paramilitary units entered the hospital and led patients and members of the hospital staff away. Of 444 people on the evacuation lists, only 128 eventually reached Croatia, along with a small number of medical workers.


It is believed that many of those taken from the hospital were loaded into buses and driven to a collective farm at Ovčara, about seven kilometres southeast of Vukovar. Some may have been killed on the spot. In 1992 an international team of forensic experts was able to make a preliminary excavation of an area near the farm. Here they discovered human remains, which showed strong signs that they had been unlawfully killed. They estimated that the grave contained the bodies of about 200 people, but the local Serb authorities have refused permission for a further investigation.


One of the patients taken from the hospital who was seen at Ovčara was Goran Živković. Goran worked at the collective farm as a mechanic, alongside his father, Pavao Zivković, who had been employed there for 27 years. Goran had spent four years at technical college learning how to repair agricultural machinery and was skilled with his hands.


His father, who now lives in a refugee settlement near Zagreb with his wife and other son, Damir, lost contact with Goran Živković during the defence of Vukovar. On 19 November 1991, Pavao Živković surrendered to JNA forces and was taken to Velepromet goods yard on the outskirts of the town, which was used by Serbian forces as a camp for processing and interrogating prisoners. Shortly afterwards he was transferred to a cattle farm at Stajićevo, near Zrenjanin, in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which was used as a detention camp. It was at Stajićevo, some months later, that Pavao Živković heard the first news of his son.


On 16 November 1991 Goran Živković had been wounded in the shoulder by a shell fragment while sheltering in a building near the centre of Vukovar. Two others who were with Goran were more seriously wounded. One, who was taken from Vukovar to a hospital in Serbia and who was later transferred to the Stajićevo camp, met Pavao Živković there and told him that his son had been wounded and taken to the hospital. Later Pavao was able to speak with someone else who had sat next to his son on the bus that took the patients to Ovčara. This person apparently met an acquaintance among the guards who arranged for him to be taken off the bus.


Goran stayed at Ovčara. One of Pavao and Goran Živković's former workmates, a Serb who was present as a guard, recognized Goran as one of the captives that had been taken from the bus and locked in a hangar. This was the last piece of news about their son to reach the Živković family.


1Goran Živković


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Serbia, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and to the Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Goran Živković and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Republic of Serbia


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167

Salutation: Dear President


2President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President



3Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army


General Momćilo Perišić

Načelnik Generalštaba Vojske Jugoslavije

Knesa Miloša 37

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Salutation: Dear General Perišić



Goran Jularić was born in Vukovar in 1952, and worked in the town as a labourer. When the siege of the town began, Goran was active in its defence, and he was wounded during the siege.


The last word his mother, Marta Jularić, received was that Goran had been wounded and taken to the hospital. She herself was later detained and interrogated in the barracks of Vukovar.


Since then, she has had only one piece of news about her son, from a neighbour, Stipan Lučić. He told her that at the end of November 1991 he had seen Goran in a detention camp at Stajićevo, near Zrenjanin, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. According to Stipan Lučić, he and Goran had been held in the same room in a large warehouse or barn, and had spoken and exchanged news about their families.


Goran Jularić's father was killed after the fall of Vukovar. His brother Stipe Jularić, who was captured after the fall of the town, now lives with his mother in a refugee settlement near Zagreb. Both are still searching for Goran.




Duško Kologranić was born in the village of Nijemci, 20 miles south of Vukovar, where he lived with his wife Gordana and his two teenage children, Ivana and Andrea. Duško worked for Vupik, a textile firm, and had also opened a workshop in his house from where he ran a small private business, weaving textiles for firms all over the former Yugoslavia.


Duško Kologranić, too, was active in the defence of Vukovar. He was slightly wounded on 11 November and went to the hospital, from where, after the fall of the town, he was taken along with others.


Duško's wife and children have had no word of him since then. They live in the same refugee settlement as Marta Jularić.


2Goran Jularić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Serbia, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and to the Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Goran Jularić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


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1President of the Republic of Serbia

Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167

Salutation: Dear President


2President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President


3Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army

General Momćilo Perišić

Načelnik Generalštaba Vojske Jugoslavije

Knesa Miloša 37

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Salutation: Dear General Perišić



3Duško Kologranić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Serbia, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and to the Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Duško Kologranić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


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1President of the Republic of Serbia

Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167

Salutation: Dear President


2President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President


3Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army

General Momćilo Perišić

Načelnik Generalštaba Vojske Jugoslavije

Knesa Miloša 37

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Salutation: Dear General Perišić



Siniša Glavašević had started work as an announcer at Radio Vukovar in November 1989, moving on to the position of editor of programming early in 1991, where he won praise for his innovative approach to radio journalism and his success in presenting a balanced view of the extremely tense political situation in the area.


Partly as a result of this tension, the managing editor, a Serb, left the station in mid-1991 and Siniša Glavašević was promoted in his place.


As the siege of Vukovar began to bite, the staff of the radio station adapted to the conditions as best they could. In September they had to abandon the main studio and broadcast from the cellar of a building nearby using a portable transmitter.


Siniša Glavšević combined reporting for the local station with reporting for the national station in Zagreb, interviewing both those active in the defence of the town and civilians sheltering in the cellar. Although, in early November 1991, a facial injury from a piece of shrapnel prevented him from speaking on the radio for a couple of days, he soon returned to work.


Shortly before the surrender of Vukovar the staff of the radio moved to the hospital for safety. Here they took shelter in a basement room, where they remained until Yugoslav National Army (JNA) forces entered the building.


At about 7:30 on the morning of 20 November Siniša Glavašević left the room to see what was happening. The other members of the radio station staff expected him to return shortly. There has been no reliable news of him since then, although there have been unconfirmed reports that he was seen at Ovčara and in other detention camps.



4Siniša Glavšević


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1President of the Republic of Serbia


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167

Salutation: Dear President


2President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President


3Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army


General Momćilo Perišić

Načelnik Generalštaba Vojske Jugoslavije

Knesa Miloša 37

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Salutation: Dear General Perišić

Ivanka and Miljenko Ledić, parents of Goran Ledić, are convinced that their son is still alive, because in 1992 and 1993 they received a series of anonymous telephone calls telling them that he was a prisoner in one of the Serb-occupied areas of Croatia.


Goran Ledić is an agricultural engineer by profession, but rising unemployment had forced him to take whatever work he could find. He "disappeared" in November 1991, the day after the fall of Vukovar.


According to his mother, "He was too gentle really. He had no enemies .... During the siege he helped wherever he could, fire-fighting, fetching water, running errands, but he didn't carry arms. He could have, but he didn't want to."


On 18 November 1991 Goran Ledić and his mother had taken shelter with a group of other people in a large cellar in the centre of town. At about 9pm they were surrounded by Serbian paramilitaries and taken to Velepromet yard, where they were separated. This was the last time she saw Goran.


Her attempts to get news of her son through official channels met with no success, and in May 1992 she decided to appeal for information in the Croatian daily, Večernji List.


The next day she received a telephone call from a young man who said that she could call him "Zlatko" and that he was phoning from Germany. He told her that Goran was alive and claimed that both of them had been prisoners in Vojvodina, Serbia, digging irrigation ditches. He added that he did not know where Goran might be now, although he thought it possible that he was in Novi Sad.


On 18 February 1993 Večernji List published a further request for information and, on 21 March 1993, she had another telephone call, from a man who would not give his name, but who claimed to be a Serb, a member of the Yugoslav Army in Vukovar. He said that he could confirm Goran was alive and well, and that he was working on a forested mountain south of Čačak in Serbia.


The caller said that he was weary of the war and that was why he had called.


He described her son well enough to convince her that he really had seen him and, from what he said, Ivanka Ledić concluded that he was one of the men who had been guarding her son. When she asked him to help Goran get out, saying "There's no price we wouldn't pay", he said he could not, that money had nothing to do with it, but that if it were possible he would call again in a month or so.


When the next call came, the caller said that he could pass on greetings from Goran, that the work party had come down from Jelica to the plain, and that they were now in Djeletovci, a village about 10 kilometres south of Vukovar. This call, in July 1993, was the last.


Ivanka and Miljenko now live in a damp basement flat in a run-down building in Zagreb. They moved there after the last of the calls, and Ivanka Ledić fears that she might have missed the chance to learn more about her son. "We got another phone number when we moved, so perhaps "Zlatko" and that Serb have tried to call and we don't know...."

5Goran Ledić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Serbia, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and to the Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Goran Ledić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Republic of Serbia


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167

Salutation: Dear President


2President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President


3Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army


General Momćilo Perišić

Načelnik Generalštaba Vojske Jugoslavije

Knesa Miloša 37

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Salutation: Dear General Perišić


Bronka Magdić is a refugee from Vukovar. She lives with her teenage son and daughter in a small cramped room on the 11th floor of a hotel in Zagreb. She has not seen her husband Mile Magdić since October 1991.


Mile Magdić had worked as a waiter in a cafe until being called up to take part in the defence of Vukovar.


On 14 October 1991, Bronka Magdić took refuge in a cellar of a neighbour's house. She remained there until 20 October, when she and her neighbour were ordered out by uniformed Serbs, who took them to Velepromet yard.


At Velepromet, Bronka Magdić was told to wait to be interrogated and, when her turn came, she was taken to a room and questioned about her husband's activities. Later she was driven to the town of Negoslavci, eight kilometres south of Vukovar. Here she was hand-cuffed, blind-folded and taken to the cellar of a house. She spent the night there, listening to the sound of people being beaten, and in the morning she was questioned further.


She remained at Negoslavci until 23 November, when she was told that she would be released. She was returned to Velepromet yard for a brief period, and while there she heard the first news of her husband.


A Serb reservist, who was the brother of one of her neighbours, saw her there and told her that he had seen Mile Magdić at Ovčara. She states that some "Četniks" (nationalist Serbs) who were there threatened to kill her, but a soldier of the regular army told them that she had the correct papers, and she was taken by bus to Belgrade, from where she made her way to Germany, where her father worked. In Germany she learned that her husband had been seriously wounded by a grenade and taken to the hospital.


As soon as she could, Bronka Magdić made contact with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), and received a reply stating that Mile Magdić had been released in a prisoner exchange. Sadly, this proved to be a mistake. All her other attempts to find out what has happened to her husband have been to no avail.


6Mile Magdić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Serbia, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and to the Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Mile Magdić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


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1President of the Republic of Serbia


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167

Salutation: Dear President


2President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President


3Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army


General Momćilo Perišić

Načelnik Generalštaba Vojske Jugoslavije

Knesa Miloša 37

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Salutation: Dear General Perišić

Damir Živković lived with his parents, Josip and Zora, in Borovo Naselje, a suburb of Vukovar. He had joined the police force in the spring of 1990.


During the siege of Vukovar he and his parents were unable to meet very often, as he was mostly stationed in the town itself and his father was active in the Civil Defence near their home. He was able to visit them occasionally, however, and the last time they saw him was 25 October 1991.


On 6 November Damir Živković was wounded and taken to the hospital in Vukovar, from where, like so many others, he was taken on 19 November.


His mother and father, who now live in a refugee centre near Zagreb, had at first been housed at a reception centre in Baško Polje on the Croatian coast. While there, his mother met another displaced person who had been a member of Croatia's National Guard (ZNG) and who, after the fall of Vukovar, had been detained in the jail at Niš in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.


Zora Živković invited him to come and sit in her room for a coffee, and when he arrived he caught sight of a photograph of Damir Živković hanging on the wall. He immediately asked, "What's that copper doing there?". Upon being told that he was her son, the man said that he recognized him as having been a fellow-prisoner in Niš, one of a group of police detained there, although they had had no personal contact.


There is a second piece of evidence that helps convince Damir Živković's parents that he survived. On the eve of an exchange of prisoners at Sremska Mitrovica in August 1992, identity documents which had been taken from the Croat prisoners at the time of their arrest were returned to them. Among them were documents belonging to seven people who were not present in the room and not included in the exchange, and whose fate is still unknown. Damir Živković was one of those seven.


Even though their hopes for the return of their son were raised by these events, the uncertainty inevitably takes its toll on Josip and Zora Živković. Zora tells her visitors: "If only I could learn whether he was alive, or not; the waiting drives me mad." Her husband adds, "The worst thing for us all is that we don't know about our children. If the children were to come everything would be all right."

7Damir Živković


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Serbia, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and to the Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Damir Živković and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


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1President of the Republic of Serbia


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167

Salutation: Dear President


2President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President


3Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army


General Momćilo Perišić

Načelnik Generalštaba Vojske Jugoslavije

Knesa Miloša 37

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Salutation: Dear General Perišić

Slavko Živković lives in one room with his two teenage children in a refugee centre near Zagreb where he waits for more news of his wife, Marija.


He describes their life together: "I worked 12 hours a day, sometimes longer. I was satisfied and happy, I had a wonderful wife, marvellous marriage and two golden children. We were a happy family."


Slavko was active in the defence of Vukovar, while Marija looked after the household and family. After 14 September 1991, attacks by the Serbian forces prevented him from returning to the house. On 22 October he was wounded and on 19 November, when the town fell, he was captured and taken to Velepromet yard.


He later learned that Marija had taken shelter in the same cellar as her friend Bronka Magdić (see Mile Magdić's story, case 6), and that they had been taken to Velepromet yard together on 20 October. While they were waiting to be interrogated, Bronka Magdić heard Marija Živković being asked, "Marija, where is your husband?" She replied that he had gone into town and had not returned. After 10 minutes, three men came in a car and told her to go with them.


In late 1992 Slavko Živković was able to get in touch with someone in Vukovar who agreed to try and find out what had happened to his wife. This person claimed that Marija Živković had been taken to Negoslavci, and had been subjected to a form of trial there. Marija Živković had been accused of agitation and working for the ruling Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), and of organizing the purchase and distribution of arms.


Slavko Živković says that his wife had never been a member of the HDZ, and had certainly never been involved in distributing arms. "She never got mixed up in politics, she certainly wasn't a criminal."


Slavko Živković has also heard other rumours, including one that she had been killed. But as there had also been rumours of his own and his brother's death, he feels that he cannot trust these reports.


"Even if I knew that she was dead, if I had real proof, at least I would know that she was gone. Of course I should be sorry... But I think I would like any kind of fact. And if someone were to bring her alive I would give everything I have. And her parents, who have land, tractors; they would sell it all and give all the money they have if only someone would bring her, alive."

8Marija Živković


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Serbia, the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and to the Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Marija Živković and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Republic of Serbia


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167

Salutation: Dear President


2President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President


3Chief of Staff of the Yugoslav Army


General Momćilo Perišić

Načelnik Generalštaba Vojske Jugoslavije

Knesa Miloša 37

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Salutation: Dear General Perišić

Before the outbreak of conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina in April 1992, the town of Mostar had a mixed population, of which Croats and Muslims each made up roughly 40 per cent, and Serbs the remaining 20 per cent. Refugees recall that people of different nationalities, cultures and religions lived peacefully together.


In April 1992 the town was attacked by forces of the Yugoslav National Army (JNA) - later transformed into the Bosnian Serb Army - and Serb paramilitaries. By July 1992 forces of the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and the Bosnian Government's Territorial Defence (TO) had succeeded in repelling these attacks and the town came under the joint control of the HVO and Bosnian Government forces. However, this was followed by incidents of abuses against non-Croats (mostly Muslims) on the part of the HVO, and fighting, this time between Croats and Muslims, resumed in May 1993.


Since the establishment of the Croatian-Bosnian Federation in March 1994, the town has been administered by the European Union and the Western European Union (WEU) has established a unified Croat and Muslim police force under the stewardship of WEU police officers.


Sixty-five-year-old Dragan Ilić is a retired businessman from Mostar and an ethnic Serb.


On the night of 1 March 1993 three uniformed men, armed with machine guns and grenades rang at the door of the flat where he and his wife lived. According to Mrs Ilić, the men were wearing uniforms of the "Croatian army", although it is not clear whether they were soldiers of the HVO or of the Army of the Republic of Croatia (HV).


As it was after the curfew imposed on Mostar citizens by the local Croatian authorities, the couple did not want to let them in. The men then broke into the flat, seized Dragan Ilić and drove him away. One of the soldiers reportedly threatened Mrs Ilić that if she did not accompany them, she would not see her husband again. The following day Mrs Ilić reported the incident to the local police and was told to stay in her flat.


Approaches to the local Croatian authorities were met with denials that Dragan Ilić was held in any of the detention camps under their control, that attempts to trace him had been unsuccesful, and with the claim that a Croat had been abducted on the same day by the same men. The Western European Union police Special Investigation Branch has recently undertaken to investigate Dragan Ilić's "disappearance".


Ljubomir Pašić is a Serbian economist who lived with his Bosnian Muslim wife in Mostar where he worked for a mining company.


On 24 July 1992, a few weeks after the Bosnian Serb Army had been pushed out of Mostar in fierce fighting, he was taken from his flat by Bosnian Croat police, who had a warrant for his arrest. He was returned home later that day.


The following day, 25 July, the Bosnian Croat police returned and he was reportedly taken to a detention centre set up at the university in the town. According to a neighbour who was present at the time of the arrest, the police returned to the empty flat and took a television, video and video cassettes. When the neighbour asked where Ljubomir Pašić was, she was told that he was being detained in jail for interrogation. When she asked why he needed a TV and video in jail, she was warned not to get involved.


Appeals for information by his wife to the Bosnian Croat police yielded no information. The police suggested that members of the Croatian paramilitary group, HOS, were responsible, but she regarded this as a smokescreen. Her efforts to discover her husband's fate appear eventually to have led to her own arrest, after which she left Mostar.


She then turned to the Bosnian Government for help. Their Exchange Commission raised the matter with the Bosnian Croat police in Mostar, but got no satisfactory answer, other than a message that he may have been among a group of Serbs who had been killed in the Mostar area at the beginning of the war. His wife refuses to accept this answer, as she had been assured by an official of the Croat police force that he was not among those killed.

9Dragan Ilić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President and Minister of Defence of the Republic of Croatia, and to the President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Dragan Ilić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


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1President of the Republic of Croatia


Dr Franjo Tudjman

Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske

Pantovčak 241

10000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 443 276

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Defence, Republic of Croatia


Mr Gojko Šušak

Trg Kralja P. Krešimira IV br.1

41000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 450 236

Salutation: Dear Minister


3President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina


Krešimir Zubak

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Fax: +387 71 472 491

Salutation: Dear President


10Ljubomir Pasić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President and Minister of Defence of the Republic of Croatia, and to the President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Ljubomir Pasić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.



Send your letters to:


1President of the Republic of Croatia


Dr Franjo Tudjman

Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske

Pantovčak 241

10000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 443 276

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Defence, Republic of Croatia


Mr Gojko Šušak

Trg Kralja P. Krešimira IV br.1

41000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 450 236

Salutation: Dear Minister


3President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina


Krešimir Zubak

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Fax: +387 71 472 491

Salutation: Dear President

Budimir Radojević lived with his wife, Mirjana, and 13-year-old son Ivan in Sokolović Kolonija, a suburb of Sarajevo. He was a Serb, born in Belgrade in 1948, who had trained as an electrical engineer and who had risen to the position of deputy manager in the Sarajevo firm "Energoinvest".


Budimir Radojević had never been involved in politics, and was on good terms with his neighbours of all nationalities. Indeed, some of his Bosnian Muslim neighbours are among those who tried to help Mirjana Radojević get news of her husband.


Budimir Radojević had started a small private business in addition to his work at "Energoinvest" and was planning to emigrate to Canada. He had succeeded in obtaining visas for himself, his wife and his son when, in April 1992, fighting erupted in Bosnia-Herzegovina. He sent his wife and son to Belgrade for safety, intending to follow them as soon as he had settled his affairs. However, the siege of Sarajevo began, movements were restricted, and he was unable to leave the city.


Mirjana Radojević telephoned her husband every day from Belgrade, still making plans for their move to Canada. The last time they spoke was on 28 July 1992. The following day the telephone lines to Sokolović Kolonija, which was under the control of the Bosnian Government, were cut. It was a year and three months before she heard any further news of her husband.


Throughout this period Mirjana Radojević tried desperately to find out where her husband was and why he had not been in touch with her. Finally she heard from a former neighbour that, at the end July 1992, Budimir Radojević, along with 19 other civilians of Serbian nationality from the same street, had been arrested by Bosnian Government military police and taken to a building used as a jail in the suburb of Hrasnica.


Mirjana still does not know why her husband was arrested, although she suspects that it may have been inspired by an incident several days earlier in which a shell fired by Bosnian Serb forces killed people queuing for food.


One of the men who was arrested on the same day was released after two years, and lives with relatives in Montenegro. According to him, the prisoners were separated as soon as they arrived at the jail and each was kept in solitary confinement. Neither he nor any of the others saw Budimir Radojević again, but he believes that he was killed on the day of his arrest or died in prison.


Although Mirjana Radojević wrote at least 15 letters to the authorities in charge of the Hrasnica prison asking for news of her husband, the only reply she received stated that he was not among those arrested that day.


Mirjana Radojević and her son are now in Canada, but sadly under very different circumstances to those she and her husband had planned for so long and struggled so hard to bring about. She now believes that her husband is probably dead, but still has a need to know the truth. If he is dead, she says, she wants to know where and how he died, and at the least she wants to give him a decent burial, in the city where he was born.


11Budimir Radojević


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina and to the Minister of Defence. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Budimir Radojević and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina


Alija Izetbegović

President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Fax: +387 71 472 491

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Defence


Jadranko Prlić

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Satellite fax: +873 112 23 67

Salutation: Dear Minister

Forty-three-year-old Rasim Kahrimanović is a Muslim born in Bosnia-Herzegovina.


In 1992 Rasim Kahrimanović joined the Army of Bosnia-Herzegovina (ABH) as an officer and, in February 1993, started to travel between Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina to work on the procurement of supplies. In March 1993 he was unable to return to Bosnia-Herzegovina when hostilities developed between the mainly Muslim Bosnian Government army and the Bosnian Croat Defence Council (HVO), in central and southern Bosnia-Herzegovina.


Rasim Kahrimanović therefore travelled to Dubrovnik on the Croatian coast to be with his wife, who was living there as a refugee. In April, when his original permission to be in Croatia expired, he reported to the police station in Dubrovnik. The police told him that he would be allowed to stay, but that he was not to leave Dubrovnik. He remained in the town selling fruit and vegetables in the market with his wife.


On 18 July 1993 Rasim Kahrimanović was reportedly summoned by telephone to the police station to answer allegations that he had been involved in the smuggling of foodstuffs. He went to the police station at 8.30am the following morning and returned between 10 or 11 am. He left again shortly after, reportedly accompanied by two or three police officers in plain clothes. On this occasion, Rasim Kahrimanović did not return.


Rasim Kahrimanović's wife stated that a few days before his "disappearance", as she travelled along the Croatian coast north of Dubrovnik through a small strip of coastline which belongs to Bosnia-Herzegovina and which is controlled by the HVO, she had been questioned by a Bosnian Croat policeman. The policeman reportedly expressed his anger at having lost a relative in fighting with the ABH. He took down her personal details, having established that her husband had fought in the ABH and was in Dubrovnik.


Rasim Kahrimanović's wife went twice to the police station in the following days seeking information about her husband, but was given no useful information. She stopped asking questions after she was threatened that her refugee status might be endangered because she had allegedly worked without permission. Since then she has heard rumours that her husband has been seen in various places in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but she has no reason to believe that these rumours have any foundation.


The Croatian Ministry of the Interior has stated that investigations have been carried out into the "disappearance" of Rasim Kahrimanović, but that there has been no progress in identifying any of the people who were responsible for his abduction.


12Rasim Kahrimanović


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Croatia and the Minister of Internal Affairs. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Rasim Kahrimanović and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Republic of Croatia


Dr Franjo Tudjman

Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske

Pantovčak 241

10000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 443 276

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Internal Affairs


Mr Ivan Jarnjak

Ministar

Ministarstvo za unutrašnje poslove Republike Hrvatske

Savska cesta 39

41000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 443 715

Salutation: Dear Minister

Paramilitary forces have been implicated in some of the most serious abuses of human rights in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. Some paramilitaries, relying on the unwillingness of the authorities to investigate their crimes, have used this apparent impunity to carry out an agenda of revenge for real or imagined personal slights or injuries.


The abduction and "disappearance" of Husein Hotić, an ex-policeman who lived in Urije, a suburb of Bosanski Novi in northwest Bosnia, is an example.


Serbian forces had taken control of Bosanski Novi in June 1992. There had been attacks on houses belonging to non-Serbs by night and Husein Hotić, his family and his neighbours, had organized a rota system to keep watch.


On the night of 1 July, Husein Hotić's younger brother was on guard. He heard a loud explosion nearby and discovered that the roof of his parents' house was on fire. A further explosion followed, setting another house on fire, and the men decided to take refuge in a cellar while the women and children remained in their houses.


Shortly after, a group of armed men claiming to be military police ordered them all to come out and that Husein Hotić was to give himself up. Otherwise they threatened to kill everyone. When the families emerged, they recognized the men, who were dressed in a mixture of uniforms, as members of a gang of criminals known to the police before the war as Suha Rebra ("Dry Ribs").


The families were held at gunpoint and, when Husein Hotić himself appeared, one of their captors announced, "Here's the animal we want." The men were ordered to stand against the wall and were searched for weapons.


One of the ringleaders, asked Husein Hotić, "Where are your weapons?", adding, "You know how many times I was beaten up at the police station". Husein replied that he did know but that he himself had never laid a finger on him. This man then hit him in the face with a truncheon. Husein Hotić was told to leave the line, while the others were ordered into a cellar and warned that if they resisted their families would be killed.


Three of the gang took a car, hustled Husein Hotić into it and drove him away towards of the village of Poljavnice. Shortly afterwards a fusillade of shots was heard from that direction.


The remaining prisoners were held under guard, while other paramilitaries looted their homes and set Husein Hotić's house on fire. Eventually the gang left, and the families were able to call the police. However, when the police arrived, they merely said that it was too late to do anything, expressed the opinion that Husein Hotić must have been killed already and left.


In the morning the brothers went to the Bosanski Novi police station, where they were asked to look through some photographs. They were able to identify three of the men involved in the previous night's events. The police inspector reportedly told them that he was sure that Husein Hotić was alive and had managed to escape, but could give no details. He then warned them that it might be unsafe to visit the police station again, without giving any reason why this might be so.


He told them that if they met him outside the station he would have something important to tell them. However, they did not see him again, although they heard a rumour that two of the gang had been arrested in Banja Luka.


A day or so later, a close acquaintance from Poljavnice came and handed over Husein Hotić's leather jacket and identity documents, which he had found in a field near his village. He told the family that he thought Husein had been killed. However, Husein Hotić's brother suspects that this is not the truth, and believes that his brother may still be alive.



13Husein Hotić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the Bosnian Serb de facto authorities, to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Husein Hotić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the Bosnian Serb de facto authorities, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Member of the Bosnian Serb de facto authorities

responsible for Internal Affairs


Živko Rakić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Mr Rakić



3Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić



4President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President


5President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

The outbreak of conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina followed the republic's declaration of independence in 1992, a move that was initiated by the Croat and Muslim parties and opposed by the Serb party. Following the March 1992 referendum - boycotted by most Serbs - which favoured independence, fighting began as armed Serbs, with the support of the Yugoslav National Army (JNA), took control of large areas of the country.


There was no fighting in the eastern Bosnian town of Vlasenica, which had a mixed population of Muslims and Serbs. But in mid-April 1992 the town was surrounded by units of the JNA. The Muslim population was disarmed and the town came under Serb control. From this time, Muslims were not allowed to leave or permitted free movement outside the town.


The JNA withdrew in early May leaving control of the town to local Serbs. Reports of beatings, looting and detention followed. In early June a detention camp was opened at nearby Sušica. There have been consistent reports that inmates of this camp were killed, and its commander has been indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in the Hague.


Ruždija Šestović, born in 1943, is of Montenegrin Muslim origin, but he had moved to Milići, near Vlasenica, in 1966 to work in the bauxite mines. There he had met and married a local woman, Muska, and they had a daughter and son, Nada and Ermin, who in April 1992 were in their late teens. In 1991 the family moved to Vlasenica itself, Nada opening a small hairdressing salon there and Ermin working as a waiter in a local restaurant.


At the beginning of April the family discussed leaving the town. They decided that Nada and Ermin should seek safety with relatives in Croatia, but their parents insisted on staying in Vlasenica, believing that they had nothing to fear. Ruždija drove Nada and Ermin to Tuzla on 10 April, from where they later travelled to Zagreb. The family remained in contact until the telephone connections were cut in May 1992.


On the night of 20/21 June three armed men wearing black masks and gloves forced their way into the Šestovićs' flat. They took Ruždija Šestović away at gunpoint, saying that they wanted him to go to the police station to sign some papers agreeing to exchange the family's flat in Vlasenica with one in nearby Kladanj, a town 30 kilometres to the west and under Bosnian Government control. Although they claimed it would take only a couple of hours, Ruždija Šestović did not return that night.


The following morning Muska Šestović went to see the chief of the local police, who she says accepted a bribe of 1,000 German marks and gold jewellery. Muska had hoped that her husband would be released in return for this, but instead she was only allowed to see him. He was being held in a windowless room in the police station with another fifty or so Muslim men.


Ruždija was transferred to the Vlasenica jail, where his wife was able to visit him daily and bring him food. Although there are reports of beatings in the jail, Ruždija Šestović was not beaten.


On 19 July 1992 Muska Šestović was herself taken by armed men to a detention camp at Sušica on the outskirts of Vlasenica (see Vahda Ibišević's story, case number 15), from where she eventually made her way to Tuzla and then abroad. She has had no contact with Ruždija Šestović since then.


However Ruždija Šestović's family is convinced that he is still alive. They have heard rumours that Ruždija Šestović is being held prisoner near Kraljevo in central Serbia.


Ermin torments himself with the thought that he should have forced his parents to leave Vlasenica when he and his sister did:


"I feel awful. I didn't spend enough time with my family, I'm upset that I quarrelled with my father about always staying out late with my friends. Now all I want is to have him back, it's the only thing I'm interested in."

14Ruždija Šestović


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the Bosnian Serb de facto authorities, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Ruždija Šestović and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the Bosnian Serb de facto authorities, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Member of the Bosnian Serb de facto authorities

responsible for Internal Affairs


Živko Rakić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Mr Rakić


3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

In April 1992, 19-year-old Vahda Ibišević and her 13-year-old brother Salih, from the village of Gerovi, 13 kilometres southeast of Vlasenica, were sent to stay with their uncle and aunt, Ruždija and Muska Šestović, by their parents, who reasoned that they would be less vulnerable in Vlasenica than in the village.


On 19 July 1992 five armed men entered the Šestović's flat. Muska Šestović (whose husband, Ruždija Šestović, is the subject of case number 14) recognized one of them as a neighbour. They forced her, her niece and her nephew out of the flat and took them to a mini-bus which was waiting at the end of the street.


Muska Šestović says that she was then made to lie down in the road at gunpoint, kicked and forced to crawl to the waiting bus, which was full of Muslim women and children.


They were driven to the camp at Sušica on the outskirts of Vlasenica where they remained for 10 days. There have been reports that inmates of this camp were killed, and Muska Šestović herself says that she saw two men beaten to death while she was there.


On 29 or 30 July a convoy of three buses took Muska Šestović, Vahda and Salih Ibišević, together with a group of women and children from the camp towards Kladanj. On the way they were met by a group of men dressed in camouflage uniforms and armed with automatic weapons and knives, who forced all the travellers to leave the bus and line up in rows.


The men separated a group of 13 young women and girls between 14 and 20 years old from the rest, making obscene jokes as they did so. Then they led them away, saying "We'll make some fine little Serbian babies with these girls, some real little Četniks." Muska Šestović believes that the men who took away her niece and the others were local Serbs from the village of Šekovići.


Muska Šestović reached the town of Tuzla, where she waited in vain for news of her niece for several months. The Šestović family are now refugees in various West European countries, and Salih Ibišević is in Bosnian Government-held territory.


They have heard no news at all about Vahda, but they fear the worst.

15Vahda Ibišević


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Vahda Ibišević and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić



3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

Some of the "disappeared" seem to have been individually targeted simply for reasons of their nationality. Bogdan Grgić, a Croatian Serb, has not been seen since the evening of 23 November 1991, when he was taken from his home in Zagreb by two uniformed men claiming to be police officers.


Bogdan Grgic was born in the village of Sadilovac near Slunj, Croatia, but since 1979 he had been working as a lorry driver for the building firm "Viadukt" in Zagreb, where he lived with his wife Sofija. He had no political interests, and was on good terms with his Croatian neighbours.


On 1 November 1991 Bogdan Grgić was taken to the main police station in Zagreb on Petrinjska Street and questioned about an attack on Slunj, some 75 kilometres south of Zagreb, by rebel Serb forces. There seems to have been no reason to connect him with the attack on Slunj, other than that this was his home town, and, as he had an alibi, he was allowed to go home.


Three weeks later, shortly after 8pm on Sunday 23 November 1991, while his wife was not at home, two armed men in camouflage uniforms, described by witnesses as resembling those of the Croatian Army, came to the house by car. They seemed unfamiliar with the area, and introduced themselves as police officers, although they showed no identification.


The two men reportedly claimed that they were taking Bogdan Grgić to the police station to question him about the case of a certain Čedomir Brajković, that he would be asked to look at some photographs and then be allowed to go home. They said that it would take about 15 minutes. However, Bogdan Grgić did not return.


When she arrived home, Sofija Grgić learned what had happened from her neighbours and went to the police station on Petrinjska street where she assumed her husband had been taken. She says that there, once her nationality and the nature of her visit was known, she was received coldly, and that the police officers, who denied that her husband had been brought there, "looked through me as though I wasn't there".


Since then, she has sought information about her husband from the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Croatian Red Cross, the Croatian parliament, the police administration and the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which is responsible for the police force.


None of these attempts to discover the fate of her husband, nor her appeals through the media for information, have met with any success. She has also been unable to discover the identity of Čedomir Brajković or any reason why the police might have wanted to question her husband in connection with him.


Sofija Grgić has a copy of a newspaper report from May 1993 which includes a photograph of a group of workers who were repairing a bridge at Maslenica on the Dalmatian coast. She thinks that one of these men may be her husband.

16Bogdan Grgić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Croatia and the Minister of Internal Affairs. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Bogdan Grgić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Republic of Croatia


Dr Franjo Tudjman

Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske

Pantovčak 241

10000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 443 276

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Internal Affairs


Mr Ivan Jarnjak

Ministar

Ministarstvo za unutrašnje poslove Republike Hrvatske

Savska cesta 39

41000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 443 715

Salutation: Dear Minister

Members of the armed forces of all parties to the conflict, whether regular or irregular, have also "disappeared" or "gone missing" after being captured by their opponents and detained as prisoners of war.


One such is Goran Dabić, a Serb from the town of Nevesinje, 40 kilometres east of Mostar, in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Goran Dabić was one of the volunteers who took part in the fighting in this area, and was captured by Croatian Defence Council (HVO) forces in Orlovac, a neighbouring village, on 12 June. Some eye-witnesses reported that Goran Dabić was captured when he attempted to rescue a friend who had been wounded.


Following his capture, Goran Dabić was seen in a Bosnian Croat-run detention camp in the town of Ljubuški, 25 kilometres southwest of Mostar, by Mijo Bošnjak, another prisoner. Mijo Bošnjak says that Goran Dabić arrived at the camp around the 15 or 17 June, and remained there until 22 June, when he was taken away to another camp in Grude. Mijo Bošnjak was eventually released in a prisoner exchange in August 1992, but Goran Dabić has not been seen since.


Goran Dabić's parents, who continue to live in Nevesinje, still hope for news of their son, but find the endless uncertainty and the helplessness of their situation almost too painful to bear. His aunt, who has tried to carry on the search from her home in Canada, says that they have been "experiencing an emotional roller-coaster for the last three years. Every time they hear the slightest bit of information that might lead to Goran's rescue they become very excited and hopeful. However, their hopes quickly fade away, once they realize that this information is not going to help find Goran."



Nineteen-year-old Samir Menzil, from Hrvaćani, a village in Bosnia-Herzegovina, is a mason by profession and a keen footballer by choice.


Samir Menzil had just finished his training at a vocational school for the building trade and was performing his military service, based in Belgrade, when the war in Croatia started.


Although he was ordered with his unit to take part in the siege of Vukovar, he deserted and succeeded in reaching Hrvaćani, where he stayed until fighting broke out in the area in June 1992, whereupon he immediately joined the Bosnian armed forces.


Samir Menzil was captured by forces of the Bosnian Serb army in Skender Vakuf on 5 November 1992. There has been no news of him since.

17Goran Dabić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President and Minister of Defence of the Republic of Croatia, and to the President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Goran Dabić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Republic of Croatia


Dr Franjo Tudjman

Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske

Pantovčak 241

10000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 443 276

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Defence, Republic of Croatia


Mr Gojko Šušak

Trg Kralja P. Krešimira IV br.1

41000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 450 236

Salutation: Dear Minister


3President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina


Krešimir Zubak

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Fax: +387 71 472 491

Salutation: Dear President



18Samir Menzil


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, and to the President of the Republic of Serbia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Samir Menzil and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:

Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army

General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić


3President of the Republic of Serbia:

Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President


Pejo Čičak is a Bosnian Croat from Brezići, a village near Derventa in northern Bosnia. Pejo Čičak worked in Zagreb, where he lived in a flat that was owned by his firm. Pejo returned every weekend to visit his wife, Andja, and their three children.


Early in April 1992 he returned home and joined the HVO. He was captured by Serb forces on 5 June during fighting in the nearby village of Stanići, and was listed as missing.


In 1993 Pejo Čičak's brother, Ilija, who is now a refugee in a Croat-controlled area of Bosnia-Herzegovina, was a prisoner in a detention camp in Kakanj under the control of the Bosnian Government. This camp was used by the Bosnian Army to hold both Croat and Serb detainees and, by chance, Ilija Čičak overheard a conversation between two Serbs, from which he deduced that his brother was being held in a work camp in the area of Doboj.


Upon his release, and as soon as he was able to trace his sister-in-law, he told her what little he knew. From then until now she has been unable to learn anything more.


Some would never have imagined that they would find themselves as combatants in the conflict, but were caught up in the fighting when the war forced itself upon them.


One of these was Dr Naser Siručić, a specialist in industrial medicine from the eastern Bosnian town of Srebrenica, who had fled to the government-held town of Tuzla when the conflict broke out in 1992.


Dr Siručić was one of a group of 66 people who attempted to return to Srebrenica, which was surrounded by Serb forces, with the intention of helping in the defence of the town. The group, all from Srebrenica and the surrounding area, included another doctor and a nurse, as well as students, lorry-drivers, skilled and unskilled workers, bank clerks, builders, hoteliers and waiters.


All had joined the Army of Bosnia-Herzegovina but, because of a scarcity of weapons, only a few of them were actually armed. Effectively, they were a group of unarmed people travelling under armed escort.


The group set off from Tuzla on 9 December 1992. They never arrived, because on 11 December 1992, between Vlasenica and Han Pijesak, not more than 20 kilometres from their destination, they ran into Serbian forces.


Three of the group are known to be dead: their bodies were later handed over by the Serb side in an exchange. There has been no information on the fate of the others.


Only Dr Naser Siručić has since been seen alive. A woman who was held in a prison in Han Pijesak, and later released in an exchange of prisoners in February 1993, stated that she saw him briefly in the prison on 19 December 1992. Between nine and 10 o'clock that evening he was led away by guards and was not seen again.

19Pejo Čičak


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, and to the President of the Republic of Serbia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Pejo Čičak and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:

Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army

General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić


3President of the Republic of Serbia:

Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President

20Dr Naser Siručić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, and to the President of the Republic of Serbia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Dr Naser Siručić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:

Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army

General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić


3President of the Republic of Serbia:

Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia

Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President

Radislav and Vladimir Madjura "disappeared" in Ilidža, a suburb of Sarajevo. They are brothers, ethnic Croats, who were living together in a house in Ilidža after their wives had left Sarajevo and fled to Croatia. Both were gregarious, cultured and deeply involved in the political and social life of their community. This, their nationality, and the high profile managerial positions that each brother held, is believed to be the reason for their abduction.


Vladimir was a soldier in the Bosnian Croat armed forces. On 11 September 1992 he was taken away for questioning by soldiers of the Bosnian Serb Army, but was later released and allowed to return home.


Later that day, the house was visited by Serbian irregular troops, members of extreme nationalist paramilitary groups known as the Arkanovci ("Arkan's men") and Šešeljevci ("Šešelj's men") who forced them into a car and took them away.


Eye-witnesses have told Radislav Madjura's wife that he had been beaten during the abduction, and that he had head injuries. Vladimir Madjura's wife, Jasna, later learned that members of the irregulars had demanded 10,000 German marks from him in return for his freedom, but that, when he had handed over what money he had, they had immediately divided it among themselves and refused to release him.


Jasna Madjura now lives in the Croatian city of Osijek, where she was born; she had met and married her husband in Sarajevo where she had been a student.


Although Jasna Madjura and her sister-in-law have asked the International Committee of the Red Cross, the Croatian Defence Council (HVO) and the Bosnian and Croatian Governments for information and help their husbands have not reappeared.


Vladimir Madjura's young son still expects his father to return. He believes that he is the prisoner of some cruel men, and that the world will finally force them to let him go, along with all the other "disappeared".

21Radislav and Vladimir Madjura


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Radislav and Vladimir Madjura and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić



3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

Bugojno, a town in west central Bosnia, originally had a mixed population, mainly of Muslims and Croats who had cooperated in the defence of the town during the period of Serbian attacks in 1992. Following the breakdown of the uneasy alliance between Croats and Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina in the spring of 1993, Bugojno was attacked in late July of that year by the mainly Muslim Bosnian Government army.


After heavy fighting, the town came under the control of the Bosnian Government army. Large numbers of Croatian Defence Council (HVO) soldiers and civilians were arrested and held in various ad hoc detention camp. The majority of prisoners were held in a sports stadium near the centre of town. Some were reportedly killed or beaten here.


During the autumn of 1993 a number of these prisoners, the youngest of whom was 21 and the oldest 56, were led away either individually or in small groups from their place of detention by members of the Army of Bosnia-Herzegovina (ABH). They were not seen again.


Zdravko Juričić worked as a teacher in the Bugojno secondary school, where his brother Milenko Juričić was the headmaster. Zdravko Juričić is a diabetic.


During the period of fighting he had been in a signals unit of the HVO, combining his duties there with his normal work as a teacher. He had never been politically active, and lived on the best of terms with his Muslim fellow townspeople.


After his capture on 23 July 1993 by Bosnian Government forces, he was sent to the front-line, where he was forced to dig trenches under fire, and later moved to the stadium, where his brother was also held. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) registered him as a prisoner of war there on 30 September 1993.


Milenko Juričić describes the room in which they were held as being about 70 square metres in size. It housed about 300 prisoners, and the overcrowding was so severe that it was not possible for the prisoners to stretch out when lying down, but only to sit.


On 7 October 1993 a group of military police arrived at the prison and summoned Zdravko Juričić and another prisoner. Milenko Juričić, who was present, states that his brother appeared frightened, but seemed to have no idea why he had been called. Milenko Juričić was able to pull away some of the plastic that covered the windows and see his brother, his hands bound, being led away across the river in the direction of the town centre. He was still wearing his slippers.


Acquaintances to whom Milenko Juričić was later able to speak say that both men were taken to the premises of a local bank. Severe beatings are reported to have been carried out by military police in the cellar of this building.


Milenko Juričić now lives in Livno, a nearby town under Croat control. He was released in a prisoner exchange under the auspices of the ICRC on 19 March 1994. Since then he has tried to discover the fate of his brother by visiting Bugojno four times to ask the authorities and his acquaintances, both Croat and Muslim, for news, but with no success. The ICRC, in response to a request for help, reportedly said that, according to their information, Zdravko Juričić had already been released in an exchange of prisoners.


Milenko says: "I told them 'Don't say such things to me, that he has been released. We have heard nothing from him, no letters, no news.' I have tried for months and months to discover what happened to Zdravko, but no one can tell me anything. Our other brother was killed in Sarajevo. It is hard to speak of such things...."

22Zdravko Juričić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina, to the Minister of Defence, and to the President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Zdravko Juričić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina


Alija Izetbegović

President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Fax: +387 71 472 491

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Defence


Jadranko Prlić

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Satellite fax: +873 112 23 67

Salutation: Dear Minister


3President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina


Krešimir Zubak

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Fax: +387 71 472 491

Salutation: Dear President


Branko Pahor, known as "Joe", left his home in Matulji, near Opatija on the Croatian coast, on 6 June 1993, five months to the day after his 20th birthday.


At that time, the Croat-Muslim conflict had begun in earnest, and Branko Pahor was in the company of a friend who feared for the safety of some relatives who lived in Bugojno. Their intention was to help them leave Bugojno and reach Croatia. They had also talked of enlisting in the Croatian Defence Council, the HVO, but Branko Pahor's family has been unable to learn officially whether they actually did so or not.


On 5 July 1993 Branko Pahor and his friend are believed to have been in the village of Gračanica, six or seven kilometres south of Bugojno. There they were entertained to lunch by a local Croat family, now refugees in a Croat-controlled area of Bosnia-Herzegovina, who have reportedly said that, on leaving the house, both Branko Pahor and his companion were stopped by a group of five or six local Muslim soldiers and taken away.


Branko Pahor's brother travelled throughout the area asking for news of him in Mostar, Prozor, Gornji Vakuf, Livno, Tomislavgrad and Bugojno itself. Although he discovered that members of the family outside whose house his brother was captured were living as refugees in one of these towns, he was unable to establish contact with them.


In each of these places, he spoke to representatives of the HVO and the local police, as well as to anyone that might have had news of his brother. In spite of his efforts, he met only with unconfirmed rumours: that his brother had been arrested to be used as a bargaining counter in a prisoner exchange; that he and his companion, an experienced soldier, were being held to help in training the Bosnian Government army; or that they were in jail in Zenica.


Branko Pahor's brother was told the names of the soldiers who were allegedly responsible for Branko's capture, but learned nothing of his true fate.

23Branko Pahor


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina, to the Minister of Defence and to the President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Branko Pahor and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina


Alija Izetbegović

President of the Presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Fax: +387 71 472 491

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Defence


Jadranko Prlić

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Satellite fax: +873 112 23 67

Salutation: Dear Minister


3President of the Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina


Krešimir Zubak

Sarajevo

Bosnia-Herzegovina


Fax: +387 71 472 491

Salutation: Dear President

In Šabac, a town in western Serbia, Dragan Medić is the president of an association of relatives of the missing and "disappeared"


The association was formed in October 1993, following an appeal that Dragan made over the radio for those who were in the same position as himself to join together and hold a meeting in Belgrade. The association currently has around 160 members, and is run on a shoestring.


Dragan Medić is seeking news of his son, Slobodan Medić, a pilot in the Yugoslav Air Force who was shot down on 2 May 1992, while on a mission over Bosanski Brod, on the Bosnian-Croatian border.


His father believes that Slobodan was captured by a group of Croatian soldiers and taken to a prisoner of war camp in Slavonski Brod, in Croatia.


Since then there has been a series of reports that Slobodan Medić has been seen in various prisons in Croatia. Most recently, a prisoner who was released in February 1994 told Dragan Medić that he had seen his son the previous month in the prison at Lepoglava, north of Zagreb. Slobodan Medić reportedly looked in poor condition. Since then no one has reported seeing him, and the Croatian side deny that he is being held in any of their jails.


His father has stubbornly tried to find him through the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and by taking direct action himself.


In November 1993 and February 1994 he wrote, without success, to Croatian officials asking for information and help. In 1993 he wrote to Vladimir Šeks, the then Croatian Vice-President, but received only the answer that he should first of all discover what had happened to the journalist Siniša Glavašević (see case number 4) and after that they could talk about pilot Medić.


Dragan Medić says that he would be happy to do this, if only he could. He has been in touch with similar organizations on the Croatian side, and believes that it would be possible for them to work together and exchange information, but he fears that the political situation and the attitudes of politicians may make cooperation hard to initiate and sustain.

24Slobodan Medić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the President of the Republic of Croatia and to the Croatian Minister of Defence. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Slobodan Medić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia. Urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1President of the Republic of Croatia


Dr Franjo Tudjman

Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske

Pantovčak 241

10000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 443 276

Salutation: Dear President


2Minister of Defence, Republic of Croatia


Mr Gojko Šušak

Trg Kralja P. Krešimira IV br.1

41000 Zagreb

Croatia


Fax: +385 1 450 236

Salutation: Dear Minister


Mass "disappearances" have been a feature of the conflict in ex-Yugoslavia, and the pattern that first appeared at Vukovar in 1992 has been repeated again and again.


In June 1992 55 Bosnian Muslim men from the village of Vrbanjci in northern Bosnia were taken from their homes and have not been seen again. One of these men is Rasim Čevan.



Forty-three-year-old Rasim Čevan was the manager of Vrbanjci's general store, who had used his afternoons over the previous few years to build up a small private driving-school which soon had become so successful that he had to take on another four employees.


On 20 June fighting broke out in the area around Vrbanjci. That day a group of armed men, Serbs from the neighbourhood, came to Rasim Čevan's house and took him away at gunpoint. Some of these men, who were reportedly in civilian clothing, lived just across the street from him.


Among the other people taken that day were Rasim's cousin Šaban Čevan and Jasmin Čevan, Šaban's son. Not one of the 55 has been seen again. One account says that all were killed on the day of their abduction. One villager, Čamil Hajdžirić, is reported to have said that he witnessed the killings, and had been ordered to bury the bodies. Čamil Hajdžirić later "disappeared" himself.


Others of the 55 were Omer Lihović, Ahmed Čevan, Šerif Hibić, Emsud Botić, Sulejman Medan and his brother Bego Medan.


25Rasim Čevan


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Rasim Čevan and 54 other Bosnian Muslim men from the village of Vrbanjci, and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić


3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

The village of Hrvaćani in northern Bosnia was a medium-sized village of around 100 houses and was, according to its inhabitants, the most prosperous Muslim village in the area. The population was Muslim, although like many villages in Bosnia-Herzegovina, at its edges Hrvaćani merged into the neighbouring villages which were predominantly Serb.


Relations between the villages were generally harmonious, but on 5 June 1992 Serbs from the neighbourhood rounded up the Muslim teachers and officials and took them away. Nothing is known of their fate.


On 10 June 1992 Hrvaćani was surrounded by Serb soldiers, whose commander demanded that a deputation should be sent out to represent the village. Four villagers were chosen to form the deputation. One of these was Ševal Turan.


Ševal Turan, born on 29 November 1962, is a Bosnian Muslim taxi-driver and father of two young children. Ševal Turan is known to have been alive when he surrendered to members of the Bosnian Serb Army (BSA) near the village of Plitska on 16 June 1992.


The deputation from Hrvaćani was ordered by the Serb commander to tell the villagers to hand over their arms, that if they did so no one would be harmed, and that the villagers would be given safe conduct away from the area.


The other villagers mistrusted these pledges and refused to hand over their weapons. The following day the village was attacked and almost completely destroyed. Within 24 hours its inhabitants had fled, taking refuge in neighbouring villages or sleeping in the open, while fighting continued in the area.


Ševal Turan fled at first to Plitska, a nearby Croat village. When, on 16 June, this village was itself attacked, he was forced to flee once again with everyone else. According to a relative, he fell behind the rest of the group and surrendered to a group of Serbs who caught up with him.


His cousin, Sedjida Menzil, says that Ševal Turan was a gregarious man, very well known and liked over a wide area because of his work, and that he had a great many Serb friends. One of these, a Serb soldier who had been a close friend, told his wife that Ševal was alive.


Another Serb, believed to be the commander of the group that captured him, reportedly told family friends that he was being held in a work camp in the Teslić area. However, attempts by Ševal Turan's family to gain information through official channels were met with the reply that no one of that name was to be found in the area.


Many of the men from Hrvaćani were victims of a mass "disappearance" at Grabovica (see case 29).


26Ševal Turan


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Ševal Turan and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić



3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

Brčko fell to the Yugoslav National Army (JNA) on 3 May 1992, after coming under attack in late April. After Brčko's fall, paramilitaries entered the town and there is extremely strong evidence to show that they were involved in extrajudicial executions and indiscriminate killings. Among those who were arrested and taken away to an unknown destination were two brothers, Mustafa and Admir Medinić.


Thirty-year-old Mustafa Medinić and his younger brother Admir both worked for the Bosnian Post Office in Brčko. They lived with their mother in the family home in Zaim Musanović street. Although forces loyal to the Bosnian Government had been active in the defence of the town, neither Mustafa nor Admir had taken part in the fighting.


At about 10am on 4 May 1992, members of a unit of the Beli Orlovi ("White Eagles"), a paramilitary organization based in Serbia, entered Zaim Musanović street and rounded up all the men of Muslim nationality living there, including the Medinić brothers. All were taken at gunpoint to the local police station where they were questioned, and then to the Hotel Posavina.


At the hotel all the prisoners were made to drink alcohol and then led outside to the hotel terrace. Here they were forced to dance to a Serbian folk song whistled by their captors. While the dancing continued the prisoners were led off one by one in the direction of the town centre. There has been no further news of them since that day.


Their mother, convinced that her sons are still alive, is now a refugee in Croatia.


27Mustafa and Admir Medinić


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Mustafa and Admir Medinić and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić



3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

On 22 October 1992 a bus was carrying workers from the village of Sjeverin in the Sandžak region of Serbia to their work-place in the Serbian town of Priboj.


For 11 kilometres of its journey, the bus had to pass through a part of Bosnia-Herzegovina controlled by Bosnian Serbs. It was here, at the village of Mioče, that the bus was stopped by eight armed and masked men.


According to reports, 16 Muslim men and one woman were taken from the bus and driven off in broad daylight in a truck, which had no registration plates, towards the Bosnian town of Višegrad. They may have been told that they would be exchanged for Serb prisoners held by the Army of Bosnia-Herzegovina.


The incident attracted much publicity. The Bosnian Serb Army commander, General Ratko Mladić, publicly condemned the act and denied that his forces had been involved. On 24 October 1992 the then President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY), Dobrica Ćosić, announced that he had appointed a state commission to investigate the abduction. Disturbingly, there were unconfirmed press reports that the victims had been killed in Višegrad. That weekend two suspects, ML and DD, both paramilitary commanders, were arrested in Serbia but released two weeks later, reportedly because of lack of evidence to charge them with the abductions.


A few months later, on 27 February 1993, a similar incident occurred as a train travelling from Belgrade to the Montenegrin port of Bar entered a 10-kilometre section of track in Bosnian Serb-controlled territory. At the station in Štrpci the train was stopped and boarded by armed men in uniform, some of whom carried markings which appeared to indicate that they were Bosnian Serb or military police.


The men went through the train asking for identity papers, from which they could deduce the nationality of most of the passengers. They took 21 or more men off the train. Most were Muslims from Montenegro, but one was a Croat, a retired Yugoslav National Army officer. There were reports that a number of Serbs of Bosnia-Herzegovinan origin were also taken off for mobilization.


Both incidents were surrounded by rumours and new allegations continued to emerge for some time. But the truth is that the authorities have made no real progress towards uncovering the fate of these "disappeared" and bringing the perpetrators to justice. Early public statements by Yugoslav, Serbian and Montenegrin Presidents and government ministers - including some that were made at a meeting of the Serbian President, Slobodan Milošević with relatives of the Štrpci victims - have led only to unkept promises.


Indeed, rather than positive actions towards resolving the case, it appears that the authorities have acted to obstruct possible criminal proceedings. On 20 August 1994, the Yugoslav President, Zoran Lilić, was reported in the Belgrade daily Politika as saying that ML had perpetrated at least the Štrpci abductions and that the Serbian police had "risked their lives" in arresting ML, but had handed him over to the Bosnian Serb authorities because the FRY had received promises that he would be tried there. Subsequently, ML was apparently released by the Bosnian Serb authorities.


Zoran Lilić thus implied that the authorities had evidence that ML had perpetrated the abuses, but had handed him over to judicial authorities whose status is unclear when, according to Yugoslav law, he could properly have been tried in a court in the FRY.


28Mioče and Štrpci


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearances" at Mioče and Štrpci, and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that these cases be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that these cases be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić



3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President



Those who "disappeared" at Mioče are:


Muzafer Hadžić (age 30)


Esad Džihić (age 22)


Ramiz Begović (age 57)


Medredin Hodžić (30)


Mevlida Hodžić (32)


Medo Hodžić (45)


Sabahudin Ćatović (22)


Ramahudin Ćatović (24)


Mehmed Šebo (32)


Idriz Gibović (45)


Sead Pecikoza (25)


Hajrudin Sajtarević (Halko) Hajrudin (37)


Alija Mandal (38)


Derviś Softić (39)


Midhat Softić (42)


Mujo Alihodžić (42)


Mustafa Bajramović (44)


Mioče and Štrpci - page 2


Among those who "disappeared" from Štrpci are:


Senad Dječević (age 17)


Adem Alomerović (age 57)


Rasim Čorić (age 41)


Fikret Memović (age 40)


Fevzija Zeković (44)


Nijazim Kajović (30)


Muhedin Hamić (27)


Safet Prelević (25)


Džafer Topuzović (55)


Iljaz Ličina (37)


Bakija Fehim (43)


Šečo Softić (48)


Rifat Husović (35)


Esad Kapetanović (19)


Ismet Babacić (30)


Jusuf Rastoder (49)


Toma Buzov (53)


Halil Zupčević (49)


Zvježdan Zuličić (24)

28Mioče and Štrpci


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearances" at Mioče and Štrpci, and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that these cases be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that these cases be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić



3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

Forces of the Bosnian Serb Army (BSA) are responsible for the "disappearance" of a group of 163 Bosnian Muslim men, mostly from the villages of Hrvaćani and Večići, whom they captured on 3 November 1992 in the village of Grabovica, northeastern Bosnia.


On 10 June 1992 Hrvaćani was surrounded by the Serbian army, whose commander promised safe passage to its inhabitants who were ordered to hand over their arms. The villagers mistrusted this pledge and refused to give up their weapons.


The following day the village was attacked and most of the villagers fled to Večići, a predominantly Muslim village of some 400 scattered houses. Here the refugees from Hrvaćani joined others who had been forced to flee their homes. Despite coming under heavy attack during October 1992, its inhabitants and the more recent arrivals managed to hold out until the beginning of November.


The situation became increasingly uncertain. The village was heavily shelled, and a shortage of food threatened. On 1 November 1992 the inhabitants held a council and decided that the men should try to break out to Bosnian Government-held areas. They also agreed that the younger women should go with them, as they were considered to run a serious risk of being raped should the Serbs capture the village.


On 3 November the surrounding forces mounted a fierce attack. Amid the confusion the escape plan was put into action. Two parties set off at around 8pm, one intending to make its way to Proboj, and the other heading for Travnik, about 40 kilometres away across the wooded hills.


This second group contained 163 men who were in the Territorial Defence force, Teritorijalna Odbrana (TO), now the Army of Bosnia-Herzegovina, and a number of women and children. Many in the group were related by blood or marriage.


Near the village of Grabovica they were ambushed by soldiers of the BSA. The soldiers ordered them to lie down with their hands clasped behind their necks, and threatened to kill them out of hand. Some of the soldiers lifted the Hodža (spiritual leader) of Večići from the ground and accused him of being responsible for the war. They then punched, kicked and beat him.


All were robbed of money, possessions, identity papers and photographs of relatives - everything they had managed to bring with them from their homes. They were then taken to the village school, where the men and women were separated, the men being taken to the first floor while the women were held on the ground floor. The women were interrogated but not ill-treated, but some report hearing the sound of beatings on the first floor.


Early next morning the men and women were allowed to see and speak briefly to one another. At this time the men were all reportedly alive and in relatively good health. At 10am the women were ordered to board a bus that took them to the village of Vrbanjci, from where they were expelled to Bosnian Government-held territory. The men remained behind in Grabovica.


The relatives of many of those who "disappeared" in Grabovica have heard, and some believe, that they are being held in work-camps in northern Bosnia, for instance as labourers in a quarry near Doboj. Since international observers have been denied free access to this area by the local de facto Serb authorities, it has been impossible to confirm or deny these rumours.


29Grabovica


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of 163 Bosnian Muslim men at Grabovica, and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić



3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President


'Grabovica' - page 2


Among the 163 who "disappeared" at Grabovica are:

Namko Turan worked in the town planning department of the local market town, Kotor Varoš, but his passion is football. He was good enough to be a member of the village team which took part in local tournaments. He and his wife Ramiza have two children, a boy and a girl, Nedim and Nera, who are now in Germany.


Mustafa Pašić is a taxi-driver who lived in Hrvaćani and worked from Kotor Varoš, covering the Banja Luka area. He had been doing the job for about six years, and liked it - his wife says that the work suited him, but that he had to spend a lot of time at work to make ends meet.




Sead Aganbegović is from Banja Luka. In April 1992 he was sent call-up papers and ordered to present himself for service in the Bosnian Serb forces. Instead, he fled to relatives in the Kotor Varoš area, and then reached Večići, where he joined the others in the attempt to break out.


When the war started, Ševal Menzil, from Hrvaćani, was still at school, where he was an excellent pupil. His mother, who managed to carry copies of his school reports and certificates with her into exile, is terribly proud of him: she says that he "knew as much as a professor". Ševal Menzil was a voracious reader, particularly interested in books about history or scientific subjects.


When the war started he joined the Territorial Defence in Hrvaćani, and was withdrawn to Večići with the rest of his unit.


29Grabovica


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Namko Turan, Mustafa Pašić, Sead Aganbegović, Ševal Menzil and 159 other Bosnian Muslim men at Grabovica, and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić


3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

'Grabovica' - page 3



Thirty-two-year-old Sead Rahmanović is a machine and bulldozer operator.


When war started he travelled to Travnik, where he joined the Bosnian Government armed forces. While in Travnik, he learned from refugees that his wife, Hajrija Rahmanović, was trapped in Večići, and he made his way there to try to bring her out.


Hajrija Rahmanović, who although suffering from rheumatism and intense stress as a result of her three years of waiting, acts as an unofficial spokeswoman for relatives of the "disappeared" who are living in Zubok.


They had only been married for a short time, and when the war broke out they decided to delay having the family they had planned until the fighting finished - "and then look what happened," she says. "Three years and no news. I have become sick - not just with rheumatism, but in the head - I miss my home, and I miss my husband."



Said Alagić was born in Večići. He is married with a son and daughter (his wife and children are in Zenica). He had been working for 11 years in Zagreb as a bricklayer, but was in the habit of returning to Večići every month to see his family. He had joined the army on the outbreak of war.


Said's younger brother Sadik Alagić has also "disappeared". Sadik, married with one son, a skilled, experienced craftsman and naturally good with his hands, had been working in Austria as a machinist since 1990. Their relatives Mujo Alagić, Huso Alagić and Hajro Alagić, all from Večići, have also "disappeared".


29Grabovica


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Sead Rahmanović, Said Alagić and 161 other Bosnian Muslim men at Grabovica, and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić


3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

'Grabovica' - page 4


Mehmedalija Pašić is from Kotor Varoš, but worked for a shipbuilder in Pula, Croatia. His family remained in Kotor Varoš and he visited them frequently. He was with them on such a visit on 10 May 1992, when the roads leading out of the town were closed by the insurgents, and they were unable to leave. Mehmedalija Pašić, however, managed to escape from the town and got as far as Večići, where he fought for four months.


His wife describes him as sociable and home-loving, very fond of company and the local music. His brother Sakib was also captured at Grabovica.



Thirty-two-year-old Mustafa Turan worked in Kotor Varoš, where he was a skilled machinist at the "Jelšingrad" factory. The firm made machine parts, exporting to firms in Russia and in Austria.


Mustafa Turan is married, with two children,

15-year-old daughter Ferida and 20-year-old son Ferid. He is known as a great chess player. His sister, Mensura Turan, says that he was the village champion, "which is just as well because he hated losing".


With money that he had saved from his wages, and some help from his father, Mustafa Turan had managed to fulfil his dream of opening a little shop in the centre of the village selling provisions and drinks. Mustafa proudly opened its doors in February 1992.

29Grabovica


Amnesty International is supporting relatives in their search for the "disappeared".


Join our campaign by writing to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs, the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Say that you have read about the "disappearance" of Mehmedalija Pašić, Mustafa Turan and 161 other Bosnian Muslim men at Grabovica, and that you are concerned about this and other "disappearances" affecting all nationalities in the former Yugoslavia.


In your letters to the representative of the Bosnian Serbs and to the Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army, urge that this case be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation.


In your letters to the President of the Republic of Serbia and to the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, urge that this be clarified with a thorough, independent and impartial investigation and that those responsible be brought to justice.


Send your letters to:


1Representative of the Bosnian Serbs:


Dr Radovan Karadžić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear Dr Karadžić


2Commander of the Bosnian Serb Army


General Ratko Mladić

kod Biroa Republike Srpske

Moše Pijade 8

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 338 633

Salutation: Dear General Mladić


3President of the Republic of Serbia:


Slobodan Milošević

Predsednik Republike Srbije

Andrićev venac 1

11000 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: +381 11 682 167 or 656 862

Salutation: Dear President



4President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia


Zoran Lilić

Predsednik SRJ

Bulevar Lenjina 2

11070 Beograd

Yugoslavia


Fax: + 381 11 636 775

Telex: 11062 siv yu

Salutation: Dear President

Amnesty International October 1995AI Index: EUR 05/08/95

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