Document - Cambodia: Rights razed: Forced evictions in Cambodia

Introduction

[ EMBARGOED FOR: 11 February 2008] Public ary 2008] Public

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AI Index: ASA 23/002/2008 AI Index: ASA 23/002/2008

INTERNATIONAL SECRETARIAT, 1 EASTON STREET, LONDON WC1X 0DW, UNITED KINGDOMINTERNATIONAL SECRETARIAT, 1 EASTON STREET, LONDON WC1X 0DW, UNITED KINGDOM

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

Rkug RtUvbeNþjecjeTArs;enAtamCnbT EdlenAeBlenaHTIRkugK μanmnusSrs;enA nigRtUv e)aHbg;ecal EdlCadMeNIreq<aHeTArkneya)aysmUPaBmhaelatepøaH. RbCaBlrdæEx μrCit BIrlannak;søab; b¤RtUveKsmøab;. kñúgcMeNamG ñksøab;TaMgenaH PaKeRcInCaGñkmanCMnaj. ehdæarcnasm<½n§ nigkic©karrdæ)alRtUvbMpøaj dUcCa r)aykarN_bBa¢IdIFøInigEpnTIdIFøICaedIm. rhUtdl;cb;rbbenH nigeRkaymk enAkñúgGMLúgb:un μanqñaMdMbUgéns®gÁamEdlekIteLIg rvagEx μrRkhmEdlRtUveKbeNþjecjBIGMNac nigrdæaPi)alf μ IEdlbnþúbeLIgedayevotNam eRkamrbbsaFarN³rdæRbCamanitukm<úCa RbCaBlrdæEx μrrab;Ban;nak;)anePosxøÜneTARbeTs éf. rIÉRbCaBlrdæepSgeTot )anBüayamkarBarxøÜnenAkñúgRbeTsBIs®gÁam eRKaHGt;Xøan nig vibtþimnusSFm’EdlrbbEx μrRkhm)anbnSl;Tuk 3 . mYyTsvtSr_TI80 TIRkugPñMeBjRtUvsþareLIgvij nigmanRbCaBlrdæmkrs;vijbeNþIr² EdlRbCaBlrdæEx μrPaKeRcInTaMgenaHmkBICnbT. GñkTIRkugCaeRcInEdlRtUveKbeNþjecj enaH søab;enAkñúgGMLúgb:un μanqñaMEdlEx μrRkhmkan;GMNac 4 . karKabsgát;elIdIFøI niglMenAzan mankRmit. enAeBlenaHRbCaBlrdæcUlkan;kab;lMenAzan nigdIFøIsRmab;eRbIR)as;edayK μan mUldæanRKb;RKgeT. fVIebIvamanlkçN³RbesIrC agk¾eday k¾pÞHEdll¥GaceRbI)an b¤minsUv RTuDeRTam RtUvGaCJaFrEckeTA[Tahan nigm®nþIraCkar 5 . eTaHbICasiT§ikm μsiT§iÉkCnminRtUv)an TTYlsÁal;k¾eday k¾siT§ikan;kab;eRkApøÚvkarTTYlnUvkarKaMRTkan;EteRcIneLIg nigCak;Esþg Nas;GacepÞreTAGñkepSg)an ebIsinCaminxusc,ab;eT. enAqñaM1989 rdæaPi)al)anbegáIt eLIgvijnUvRkwtüc,ab;sþIBIsiT§ikm μsiT§iÉkCn 6 eday pþl;nUvsiT§ikan;kab;km μsiT§iCUnksikr EdlRtUvTTYldI)anrhUtdl;R)aMhikta eRkayBIBYkKat;

3

Ca]TahrN_ sUmemIl³ enAeBlcb;s®gÁam/ sresreday Elizabeth Becker enAqñaM1986/ CMnYymnusSFm’Exμ r nig GgÁkarshRbCaCati/ GgÁkarshRbCaCati qñaM1992. 4 PñMeBjBIGtItkal nigbc©úb,nñ/ eday Michael Igout qñaM1993. 5 RbeTskm<úCaeRkaysm½yEx μrRkhm³ enAkñúgneya)ayénkarksagCati eday Evan Gottesman qñaM2004

TMB½r76. 6 GnuRkwtüelx 25/ cuHéf¶TI22Exemsa qñaM1989. Ca]TahrN_ sUmemIl³ karkan;kab;dIFøI Tinñn½yGPivDÆn_km<úCa /

eday Brett Ballard qñaM2006.

siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa 7

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

eFVIERscMkarelIdIenaHCabnþbnÞab;ry³R)aMqñaM nigpþl;CUnRKYsarRbCaBlrdæ nUvsiT§iEdlTTYl)an nUvb½NÑkm μsiT§idILÚt_ rhUtdl;2000Em:RtRkLa 7. bnÞab;mkeTot siT§ikm μsiT§iÉkCnRtUvkarBar edayc,ab;rdæFmμ nujqñaM1989énrdækm<úCa 8 . maRta15énc,ab;rdæFm μnujenH)anEcgfa RbCaBl rdæman { siT§ieBjeljelIdInigeRbIR)as;dI nigmansiT§iTTYlmrtkdIEdlrdæpþl;[sRmab;eKal bMNgciBa©wmCIvitnigTTYlpl} . enHCacMNucmYybgðajBIkarpøas;bþÚrTsSnvi C¢a EdlCakarcab;epþImkMENTRmg;esdækic© nigneya)ay edaymankardkkgT½BevotNam ni gRtYsRtaypøÚvCabnÞan;sRmab;karRbkYt RbECgkñúgTsvtSr_90elIFnFandIFøI nigFnFanFmμ Cati. RbeTskm<úCa)anQancUldMNak;kal snþiPaB tamkic©RBmeRBogsnþiPaBRkug)a:rIsqñaM 1991 k¾dUcCaeq<aHeTArkesdækic©TIpSaresrI Edr. GgÁkarshRbCaCati)anerobcMRbtibtþika rya:gFMmYy edaymankgT½B nigm®nþICag 20000nak; cUlmkRbeTskm<úCa. RbCaBlrdærbs;RbeTsenHenAminTan;edaHRsay dUcCa CnePosxøÜnEdlRtLb;mkBICMruMenAtamRBMEdn enAeBlEdlkMeNInRbCaBlrdæekIneLIgya:g rh½s EdlTaMgGs;enaHnaM[mankarpøas;bþÚreTArkTIpSarlMenAzan. CaBiess enARkugPñMeBj dIFøIkan;EteLIgéføya:gxøaMg nigkøayCakm μvtßúénkarTij-lk; 9 / enAeBltémødIenARkugPñMeBjRtUv dl;kMritmYy CaBiesslMhUrcUlrbs;RbCaBlrdæcMNakRsukya:gxøaMgenaH kartaMglMenAzan minerobry rIkduHdaldUcpSitenATUTaMgPñMeBj. karbeNþjecjedaybgçMCaeRcIn enARkugPñMeBj CaBiesskarbeNþjecjBItMbn;sMNg;GnaFib etyüRtUv)aneKraykarN_fa )anekIteLIg enAkñúgGMLúgeBlenaH b:uEnþBuMmanB½t’manlMGitGMBIkarbeNþjenaHeT. enAcenøaHqñaM1993 nig1999 rdæaPi)al km<úCa)anpþl;sm,TandIRbEhlmYyPaKbIéndI

7

{ karedaHRsaydMeNIrkarbeNþjecjtamtémøTIpSar tambribTénkarGPivDÆRkug } eday Alain Durant-Lasserve/ ExemsaqñaM2005/ [http://www.worldbank.org/urban/symposium2005/papers/durand_lasserve.pdf] 8 rdæFm μnuBaØ b¤tamGñkxøHehAvafa CaviesaFnkm μénrdæFm μnuBaØqñaM1981- saFarNrdæRb Camanitkm<úCa RtUvCMnYs

edayrdækm<úCa. 9 Ca]TahrN_ sUmemIl³ dIFøI nigkarGPivDÆn_FnFanmnusSenAkm<úCa/ edayyUGinDIPI ¬km μviFIGPivDÆn_GgÁkarsh

RbCaCati¦/ qñaM2007/ RkugPñMeBj GtItkalnigbc©úb,nñ/ eday Michael Igout qñaM1993.

8 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - kar beNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

Edlpþl;TinñplbMputsRmab;karGPivDÆBaNiC¢km μedayRkumh‘unÉkCn 10. Rkumh‘unÉkCnTaMg enH mandUcCa Rkumh‘uneQI/ ksikm μ/ Er:/ eTscrN_ nigensaT. skm μ PaBTaMgenH bgá[ b:HBal;dl;RbCaBlrdæEdlrs;enAtamtMbn;TaMgenaH b¤EdlRbkbrbrciBa©wmCIvitedayTTYlpl BItMbn;b¤FnFanTaMgenaH. b:uEnþ B½t’manGMBIkarbeNþjedaybgçMEdlbNþalmkBIsm,TanTaMg enHmankRmit.

3> sßanPaBbc©úb,nñ kñúgeBlknøgeTAf μ I²enH manB½t’mankan;EteRcIneLIg GMBIkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM TaMg enATIRkug nigCnbT. RkumGgÁkarsiT§imnusS Rb eTspþl;CMnYy nigPñak;garGgÁkarshRbCaCati )anelIkeLIgnUvkgVl;kan;EtxøaMgeLIg²GMBIkt þaCaeRcIn EdlbNþal[mankarbeNþjecj nig karruHerIedaybgçM EdlbNþalmkBIsm,TandIesdækic ©/ karrMelaPdIFøI/ vivaTdIFøI nigxVHviFan c,ab;CaedIm. tMNagBiessénelakGKÁelxaFikarGgÁkarshRbCaCatiTTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusSRbcaM enARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa )anecjr)aykarN_BIrsþIBIsm,TandIesdækic©. r)aykarN_enHbgðaj BIplvi)akya:gF¶n;F¶rdl;RbCaBlrdæ edaysarskm μPaBrbs;sm,Tanik dUcCakardkhUtkm μ siT§i nigeFVI[kan;EtRkIRk 11. eyagtamr)aykarN_cugeRkaybMput enAExmifunaqñaM 2007 )an[dwgfa { karrukranT®nÞanykdIksikm μ nigdIvales μA nigkar)at;bg;rbrciBa©wmCIvit enAEt CabBaðaEdlnaM[mankar)armÖbMputEdleK)an elIkeLIgcMeBaHshKmn_nana EdlekItman eLIgedaysaresÞIrEtRKb;sm,TanEdlkMBugdMeNIrkar} 12. karGPivDÆnigGVIEdleKehAfa KeRmag {EklMGesaP½NPaB} rYmTaMgkare)assm¥at

10

sm,TandIkñúgeKalbMNgGPivDÆn_esdækic©enAkm<úCa-TsSn³siT§imnusS/ edaytMNagBiessénelakGKÁelxa FikarénGgÁkarshRbCaCati TTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusS RbcaMenAkm<úCa/ Exvicäika qña2004/ TMB½r3. 11kMNt;cMNaMdEdlxagelI nigr)aykarN_XøaMemIlkarGnuvtþ/ sm,TandIesdækic©enAkm<úCa - TsSn³siT§imnusS / tMNagBiessénelakGKÁelxaFikarGgÁkarshRbCaCatiTTY lbnÞúksiT§imnusSenAkm<úCa Exmifuna qñaM2007. 12

sm,TandIesdækic©enAkm<úCa TsSn³siT§imnusS/ tMNagBiessénelakGKÁelxaFikarGgÁkarshRbCaCati TTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusSRbcaMenA km<úCa/ Exmifuna qñaM2007.

siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþ jecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa 9

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

sMNg;GnaFibetyü nigkarsagsg;pøÚvnana nige hdæarcnasm<½n§epSg² k¾CabuBVehtubNþal[ mankarruHerIlMenAzanEdr CaBiessenAtamtMbn;Rkug nigenAtMbn;CuMvijRkug. eyagtamFnaKar BiPBelak)an[dwgfa enAcenøaHqñaM1998 nig2 003 RkugPñMeBj)anbeNþjRbCaBlrdæcMnYn 11>000RKYsarecjedaybgçM EdlPaKeRcInCaRbCaBlrdæRkIRkrs;enAtamlMenAzanminerobry enAkNþalRkug b¤Ek,rkNþalRkug 13 . cab;taMgBIeBlenaHmk karbeNþjecjedaybgçMEbbenH RtUveKraykarN_mkfa RKan;EtenAPñMeBjmYymanRbCaBlrdæCag30>000nak;RtUvbeNþjecj BIlMenAzan14 . eKdwgfa RbCaBlrdæExμrRbEhl150>000nak;nATUTaMgRbeTs kMBugrs;enA edayRbQmnwgkarbeNþjedaybgçM 15 . CYnkal karbeNþjedaybgçMenATIRkug RtUv)aneKraykarN_enAkñúgRbB½n§sarB½t’man nigRtUvXøaMemIledayGgÁkarsiT§imnusS rYmman bN þáajGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)aldUcCa Rkumkargar BiesssiT§ilMenAzan nigbNþajkargartaMglMenAzanf μ ICaedIm. eTaHbICakarbeNþjecjedaybgçMenAkñúgRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa EtgEtbgðaj[eXIjfa Ca)atuPUtEdlekIteLIgenAkñúgTIRkugk¾eday k¾e KeXIjmankrNIEbbenHekIteLIgenAkñúgtMbn; CnbT dUcCakardeNþImdIFøI Clpl nigGnupléR BeQI nigFnFanrYmepSg²eTot kMBugEtekIn eLIg 16 . eTaHya:genHkþI enAtamtMbn;CnbT TMhMénkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM nigcMnYnRbCaBl rdærgplb:HBal;minc,as;las;eT. ehdæarcn asm<½n§mankRmitEbbenHeFVI[mankarlM)akdl; shKmn_dac;Rsyal kñúgkarsMEdgGMBITukçesakrbs ;xøÜneTAeRkAshKmn_Nas;. BYkKat;eRcIn

13

RbeTskm<úCa³ bBa©b;PaBRkIRkRtwmqñaM2015?/ karvaytémøPaBRkIRkenAkm<úCa/ edayFanaKarBiPBelak/ PñMeBj ExkumÖ³qñaM2006 TMB½r48. 14

kar)a:n;s μanBIbBa¢IEdlGgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatiTTYl) anBIGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)alCaeRcIn EdlbMeBj ebsskm μenAtambNþashKmn_EdlRbQmnwgkarbeNþjecj nigshKmn_EdlRtUveKbeNþjecj. 15

kMNt;cMNaMdEdlxagelI. 16

RbeTskm<úCaPaKeRcInCatMbn;CnbT/ tYelxBIFnaKarBi PBelak)anbgðajfa RbCaBlrdæCag85PaKryrs;enA tMbn;CnbT ehIyRbmaN85PaKryénRbCaBlrd æTaMgenHrs;enAedayBwgEp¥kelIFnFanFmμ Cati nigkarRbkbrbr eFVIERscMkaredIm,IciBa©wmCIvit enHebIeyagtamÉksardUcCa³ FnFanFm μCati nigCIvPaBrs;enAtamCnbTenAkñúgRbeTs km<úCa³ karvaytémøCaeKalKMrU. ¬Éksarkargar 23/ eday Bruce McKenney nig RBM tula/ viTüasßanFnFan edIm,IGPivDÆn_km<úCa/ PñMeBj Exmifuna qñaM2002¦.

10 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - kar beNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

EtmancMeNHdwgGMBIsiT§iRsbc,ab;tictYcNas; dU cCacMeNHdwgGMBIsiT§icUlrYmkñúgkarseRmccitþ Edlb:HBal;dl;CIvPaBrs;enArbs;BYkKat; ni gedaymUldæanrbs;Kat;kRmmanGgÁkareRkA rdæaPi)alcUldl; edIm,IGacesuIbGegátRBwtþika rN_ b¤CYyelIkkMBs;karyl;dwgBYkKat;)an. CnCatiedImPaKtic Edlrs;enAeday BwgEp¥kTaMgRsugelIdIRbéBNI enAextþPaK|sanKWextþ mNÐlKirInigrtnKirI RtUveKbMePøc nigmin GacFana)annUvsiT§idUc)anelIkeLIgenHeT. PaB\tmandIFøIEdlbNþalmkBIkarbeNþjecjedayK μankaredaHRsay kMBugrIkral dalya:gxøaMgkñúgcMeNamRbCaBlrdærs;enAtamtMbn;CnbT. cMnYnénRKYsarenAtamCnbTEdl K μandIFøI)anekIneLIgBI12/6° enAqñaM1 997 rhUtdl;Cit1én5¬20°¦enAqñaM2004 17. TMnak;TMngnwgbBaðaénPaB\tmandIFøIKWmkBIx VHsuvtßiPaBkan;kab;dIFøI CaBiessenAkñúg cMeNamRbCaBlrdæEdlmanCIvPaBRkIRk. lT§PaBénkarTTYl)annUvb½NÑkmμ siT§idIFøIFanasuvtßi PaB ekIneLIgeTAtamRbPBR)ak;cMNUl³ enAqñaM2004 kñúgcMeNamR)aMPaKénRbCaBlrdæRkIRk bMput 18 manEt40PaKryb:ueNÑaHEdlmanÉksarbBa¢ak;km μsiT§i rIÉ60PaKryeTot kñúg cMeNamR)aMPaKénGñkman manÉksarEbbenH 19 . fVIebIeKalKMniténsiT§ikan;kab;EbbRbéBNI enAEtxøaMg nigGacmansuvtßiPaBmYykRmiteTotEdleTaHbICaK μanÉksark¾eday k¾CaBiess enAkñúgcMeNamRKYsarRkIRkniggayrgeRKaH Edl kMBugrs;enAelIdImanvivaTkñúgsßanPaBEdlxVH b½NÑkm μsiT§iRsbc,ab; GacnwgQaneTArkGsuvtßiPaBkñúgkarkan;kab; 20. GgÁkar Oxfam Great Britain )anRbmUlTinñn½yenATUTaMgR beTsGMBIvivaTdIFøIFM²Cag 1>800krNI )an[dwgfa RbCaBlrdæEx μrTUeTAEbreTArkynþkaredaHRsayvivaTedIm,IrkCMnYy

17

RbeTskm<úCa³ bBa©b;PaBRkIRkRtwmqñaM2015?/ karvaytémøPaBRkIRkenAkm<úCa/ edayFanaKarBiPBelak/ PñMeBj ExkumÖ³qñaM2006. 18

eyagtamFnaKarBiPBelak PaBRkIRkekItmaneRcInCagk ñúgcMeNamRbCaBlrdærs;tamCnbT/ karrIkceRmInEpñk esdækic©ya:grh½senARbeTskm<úCa manplRbeyaCn_t icNas;dl;GñkEdlrs;enAtamtMbn;CnbTEdlmanRbCa BlrdæCag90PaKryrs;kñúgbnÞat;RkIRk. 19

karEckrMElkkarrIkceRmIn³ smFm’nigkarGPivDÆn_enAkm<úCa/ FnaKarBiPBelak/ PñMeBj/ ExmifunaqñaM2007 TMB½r64. 20

kMNt;cMNaMdEdlxagelI.

siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa 11

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

eRkayBIBYkKat;)at;bg;dIFøI 21 . Tak;TgnwgÉksarCaPsþútagbBa¢ak;km μsiT§iéndIEdlmanvivaT PaKeRcInénedImbNþwg EdlBIrPaKbICaksikr K μanÉksarb¤b½NÑkm μsiT§ieT {eRBaHBYkKat;Kitfa dIEdlBYkKat;kan;kab;CadIrbs;Kat;} 22. manEtbYnPaKryb:ueNÑaHEdlesñIsuMcuHbBa¢Ib½NÑkm μsiT§i CapøÚvkar nigRbEhlmanmñak;kñúgcMeNamR)aMnak;manbgáan;édTij-lk; edIm,IKaMRTdl;karGHGag km μsiT§i 23 . TnÞwmnwgenHEdr man56PaKry)ankan;kab ;dIry³eBlR)aMqñaM b¤elIsBIR)aMqñaM enAeBlRsg;B½t’manenHenAqñaM ¬2004¦ EdlCakarGHGagya:grwgmaMcMeBaHkm μsiT§idIFøI eTAtam ¬maRta31¦énc,ab;PUmi)alqñaM2001. karsikSarbs;GgÁkar Oxfam k¾)anraykarN_Edrfa RkumPaKIcugecaTmYycMnYnFMRtUv)an ecaTRbkan;BIbTrMelaPdIFøIenaH KWGñkedImecaT ¬41PaKry¦Cam®nþIraCkar/ ¬23PaKry¦ CaTahan/ nig ¬11PaKry¦ CaRkumh‘un 24 .

3>1 sßab½nnigrcnasm<½n§ RksYgerobcMEdndI nKrUbnIykm μ nigsMNg; ¬cab;BIeBlenHeTAehAfa RksYgerobcMEdn dI¦ mantYnaTIya:gsMxan; kñúgkarerobcM nigRKb;RKgEdndI. RksYgerobcMEdndI nigRkumRbwkSa GnþrRksYgTTYlbnÞúkeKalneya)aydIFøI)anerobc MeKalneya)aydIFøI ehIy)antak;EtgeKal neya)aylMenAzanrYmKña b:uEnþeKalneya)ayenHenAminTan;Gnum½tenAeLIy. RksYgerobcMEdn dI k¾TTYlxusRtUvkñúgkarcuHbBa¢I EbgEck nigp þl;b½NÑdIFøI nigerobcMcat;EcgdIirbs;rdæpgEdr 25 . bNþasßab½nrdæCaeRcInepSgeTot mantYnaTITak;TgnwgEpñkepSg²éneKalneya)aydIFøI

21

GgÁkar GuksVam CIb‘Í (Oxfam GB) –r)aykarN_Tinñn½yvivaTdIFøI rbs;evTikaGgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al. GgÁkar Oxfam GB, PñMeBj/ Ex]sPa qñaM2005. ¬ÉksarRBagmin)ane)aHBum<¦. 22

kMNt;cMNaMdEdlxagelI. 23

evTikaGgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)alsþIBIkm<úCaEdlCaGñkRKb ;RKgTinñn½y nig)anpþl;CUnGgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþr Cati nUvkMNt;cMNaMEdlmin)ane)aHBum</ evTikaGgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al/ karviP aKTinñn½yvivaTdIFøI/ éf¶TI27ExsIha qñaM2007. 24

evTikaGgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)al karviPaKTinñn½yvivaTdIFøI qñaM2007. ¬Éksarmin)ane)aHBum</ manÉksar¦ 25

CaebHdUgénkarGnuvtþkMENTRmg;dIFøI k¾CaKeRmagRKb;RKg nigrdæ)aldIFøIEdr. KeRmagEdlmanGñkpþl;CMnYycMruH EdlRKb;RKgedayRksYgerobcMEdndI kMBugRbtibtþikarCamYyEpñkecjb½NÑkmμ siT§idIFøIenAtamextþRbmaNCagBak; kNþalextþRkugTaMg24énRbeTskm<úCa TnÞwmnwgenaHk¾KaMRTdl;RbB½n§cuHbBa¢IdIFøIEdr.

12 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - kar beNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

niglMenAzan. eTaHbICa karBinitütamdansm ,TandIesdækic©Casmtßkic©rbs;RksYgmhaépÞ k¾eday k¾RksYgksikm μrukçaRbmaj;nigensaT TTYlxusRtUvEpñkksikm μ nigsm,TandIesdækic© Edr. sßab½nrdæepSgeTot EdlBak;B½n§mandUcCa RksYgkarBarCatiTTYlxusRtUvtMbn;GPivDÆn_ eyaFa EdlkarbegáIteLIgnUvtMbn;GPivDÆn_Ebbe nH manBak;B½n§nwgkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM. RksYgGPivDÆn_CnbT k¾dUcCaRkumkargarbec© keTstamvis½y EdlrYmmantMNagRbeTspþl; CMnYy nigtMNagrbs;raCrdæaPi)al. tulakar KN³km μkarsurieyadI nigGaCJaFrCatiedaHRsay vivaTdIFøI TaMgGs;enHsuT§EtmankarBak;B½n§kñúgkare daHRsayvivaTdIFøI. sßab½nesÞIrEtTaMgGs; k¾ mankic©karrdæ)alcMruHlMdab;fñak;KW enAfñak;Cat i extþ-Rkug Rsuk-xNÐ nigXuM-sgáat; Edlman GMNackñúgkarGnuvtþEpñkmYycMnYnénEpnkarnig eKalneya)ay nigenAeBlxøHkarGnuvtþenaH Can;Kña ehIyCaTUeTAxVHPaBc,as;las;.

dMeNaHRsayvivaTdIFøI KN³km μkarsurieyadI EdlcMNuHRksYgerobcMEdndI RtUv)anbegáIteLIgenAqñaM2002 eRkamc,ab;PUmi)al. Parkic©mYykñúgcMeNamPark ic©ya:gcm,grbs;xøÜnKWkarcuHesuIbGegát nig edaHRsayvivaTdIFøIEdlminTan;cuHbBa¢I. kareda HRsayvivaTdIFøIEdl)ancuHbBa¢IehIyCasmtßkic© rbs;tulakar26 . b:uEnþ edaysarvivaTdIFøIekIneLIgkan;Etxø aMg enAkñúgry³eBlR)aMqñaMknøgeTAenH nig edaysareXIjfa KN³kmμ karsurieyadI nigtulakarminGacedaHRsayvivaTFM²TaMgenaH)an dUecñH enAExkumÖ³qñaM2006 raCrdæaPi)al)ane cjraCRkwtümYysþIBIGaCJaFrCatiedaHRsayvivaT dIFøI. GaCJaFrenHRtUv)anEtgtaMgeLIgedIm,I TTYlykerOgkþI b¤bNþwgTaMgLayNaEdl {elIsBI smtßkic©rbs;KN³km μkarCatisurieyadI} 27 b:uEnþRtUvRbKl;CUnnUvcMENkényutþaFikarrvagKN³ km μkarsurieyadInigtulakar. GMNacrbs;GaCJaFrCa tiedaHRsayvivaTdIFøI hak;dUcCaRtYtKñanwg rcnasm<½n§EdlmanRsab;. dMeNIrkarénkarbegáIt nigdMeNIrkarbs;smaCikrbs;xøÜnk¾bgðaj[

26

vivaTGacnwgRtUvbBa¢ÚneTAtulakar ebIsinCabNþa PaKIvivaTmineBjcitþnwglT§pledaHRsayrbs;KN³km μkar surieyadI. ¬maRta47¦ 27

raCRkwtü n>s>¼r>k>t¼0206¼097/ PñMeBj/ éf¶TI26ExkumÖ³ qñaM2006/ karbkERbeRkApøÚvkar.

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

eXIjnUvkarRbmUlpþúMbEnßmeToténGMNacRbtibtþienAkñúgRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa.

3>2 eKalneya)ayrbs;raCrdæaPi)al³ ÉksarsMxan;² karRbkasedaysemþcGKÁmhaesnabtIeteCa h‘un Esn naykrdæm®nþIénRBHraCaNa cRkkm<úCa GMBI {yuT§sa®sþctuekaNedIm,IkMeNI n kargar smFm’ nigRbsiT§PaBenAkm<úCa} ¬qñaM2004-2008¦ CaÉksareKalneya)ayesdæki c©ya:gsMxan;rbs;raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa ehIyeKalneya)ayenHRtUveKcat;Tukfa Ca]bkrN_mYysRmab;Gnuvtþkm μviFIneya)ayrbs; rdæaPi)almandUcCa yuT§sa®sþCatikat;bnßyPaBRkIRkEdlCakm μviFIkan;EtlMGitEfmeTot. yuT§sa®sþCatikat;bnßyPaBRkIRk ¬qñaM2006-2010¦ CayuT§sa®sþkat;bnßyPaBRkIRkrbs; km<úCaEdlCalkçxNÐrbs;sßab½nmUlniFirUbiyvtßúG nþrCati nigrbs;FnaKarBiPBelak edIm,Iman lkçN³sm,tþisRmab;karkat;bnßybMNul 28 . ebHdUgényuT§sa®sþctuekaNKW {GPi)alk ic©l¥} EdleyagtamÉksarenH tRmUv[man karcUlrYmya:gTUlMTUlay/ karEckrMElkB½t’mank an;Etl¥RbesIr/ karTTYlxusRtUv/ tmøaPaB/ smPaB/ karyl;dwgya:gc,as;las; nigFm μaFibetyü. niyay[l¥itl¥n;eTA rdæaPi)alFana {elIkkMBs;karGPivDÆRbkbedaynirnþrPaBnigsmF m’ nigBRgwgrcnasm<½n§RbeTskm<úCaedIm,I Fanafa RbCaBlrdækm<úCa mancMeNHdwgx<g;x<s; manvb,Fm’eCOnelOn manmuxrbréføfñÚr nig manCIvPaBrs;enAedaysuxdumrmna enAkñúgRkumRKYsarnigsgÁm} 29 .

ÉksaryuT§sa®sþenH min)anEcgGMBItYnaTI nigkarTTYlxusRtUvnanakñúgkarlubbM)at; karbeNþjedaybgçMeT nigmanbBa©ÚlnUvkarsnüa minc,as;las; nigKYr)armÖkñúgkarQaneTArk eCaKC½ykñúg { karlubbM)at;kartaMglMenAzanedayxusc,ab;} . b:uEnþ ÉksarenHBitCa)ankMNt; ya:gc,as;GMBItRmUvkarbnÞan;edIm,IbnþkMENTRmg;dIFøI nigsnüaedaHRsay { suvtßiPaBkan;kab;dIFøI nig >>> karrMelaPdIFøI nigRKb;RKgkm μsiT§idIFøI epþatelIeKalbMNgTijTuklk;ykcMeNj 30 } .

28

ÉksaryuT§sa®sþkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk³ karENnaMlMGit/ KeRmag Bretton Woods ExemsaqñaM2003. 29

yuT§sa®sþctuekaNedIm,IkMeNIn kargar smFm’ nigRbsiT§PaB enAkm<úCa/ raCrdæa)alkm<úCa/ qñaM2004. 30

vaminc,as;Tal;EtesaHfaetI {karlubbM)at;} EbbenaHtRmUvya :gNa/ bu:EnþrdæaPi)albBa¢ak;fa xøÜnnwgBinitüeLIg vijnUv { dIrbs;rdæEdlkan;kab;xusc,ab;edayGgÁPaB ÉkCnedaypÞúynwgbTbBa¢anignItiviFInana }.

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GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCati)armÖfa eKaledAT aMgenHKb,IRtUvGnuvtþtamEtkñúgkrNIEdlva RsbeTAtamc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCatiEtb:ueNÑaH. GaRs½yehtuenH eKKb,Iyl;fa { karlubbM)at; kartaMglMenAzanxusc,ab;} CakatBVkic©RtUvcat;viFankaredaymanRbCaBlrdæEdlrs;enAtam lMenAzanminerobry cUlrYmya:gskm μedIm,Iyl;dwg[)anc,s;las;GMBIsiT§imnusS rYmTaMg siT§imanlMenAzansmrmürbs;Kat;pg. eTaHCakñúgkal³eTs³Nak¾eday eKminRtUvyl;fa eKaledATaMgenaH Cakarpþl;siT§iedIm,IGnuvtþkarbeNþjecjedaybgçMeLIy.

eKalneya)aydIFøI )anGnum½tenAqñaM2001 ehIyRtUv)anEksRmYleLIgvijtamry³ ÉksarbeNþaHGasnñsþIBIyuT§sa®sþénRkbxNÐeKalneya)aydIFøI ¬qñaM2002¦ edayRkum RbwkSaGnþrRksYgTTYlbnÞúkeKalneya)aydIFøI . ÉksareKalneya)ayenH min)ansnüac,as; las;kñúgkarbM)at;karbeNþjecjedaybgçMeT b:uEnþenAkñúgÉksarbeNþaHGasnñ hak;dUcCa)an kMNt;TisedAmYy³ { karRBmeRBogrYméneKalneya)ayEdl kMBugelceLIgCarUbragenHKWfa karbeNþjecjedaybgçMRtUvecosvag[)aneTAt amlT§PaBEdlGaceFVI)an/ nigfa ebIsinCa karpøas;bþÚrTItaMgCakarcaM)ac;minGacecosputeT dUecñHRtUvpþl;TaMgeBlevlaRKb;RKan; nigTItaMg fμ Ismrm} . ÉksarenHk¾)anEcgEdrfa eKalkarN_ENnaMenAkñúgkm μviFIEdlehAfa km μviFI taMglMenAzan nwgbegáIt)anCa { mUldæanmYysRmab;BRgwgeKalneya)ayenAkñúgEpñkenH } 31 .

r)aykarN_rbs;RksYgerobcMEdndI kalBIqña M2004 )anvaytémøGMBIsßanPaBéneKal neya)ay {karruHerInigtaMglMenAzanf μ IedaybgçM} enARkugPñMeBjrvagTsvtSr_TI90 nigqñaM2002 nig)ansnñidæanfa { TItaMgf μ IsßitenAeRkAbrimNÐl nigK μanehdæarcnasm<½n§ nigesvakm μmUldæan RKb;RKan; RBmTaMgxVH»kasEpñkesdækic©. bNþaeKalneya)ayTaMgenaHeFVI[RbCaBlrdæRkIRk kan;EtRkeTA². CalT§pl edayeXIjnUvplb:HBal;dUecñH ¬>>>¦ rdæaPi)alBüayambBa©Úl

31 kmμviFIrbs;GgÁkarlMenAzan Habitat/ EdlCaÉksarneya)ayya:gsMxan;EdlekIteLIgBI snñisIThab‘Ítab elITI2 qñaM1996 enATIRkugGuIsþaMb‘ul RtUv)anGnum½ tedayRbeTscMnYn171enaH rYmmanRbeTskm<úCaEdr nigman karebþCJacitþ nigGnusasn_sþIBIbBaðalMe nAzanrbs;mnusSCati. maRta40 cMNuc (n) bBa¢ak;fa bNþardæTaMgLay ebþCJacitþ {karBarRbCaCnRKb;rUbBIkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM nigpþl;nUvkarkarBar nigedaHRsaytampøÚvc,ab; cMeBaH karbeNþjecjedaybgçMEdlpÞúynwgc,ab; edayykcitþTu kdak;elIsiT§imnusS/ enAeBlEdlkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM minGacecos)aneT enAeBlEdlGacGnuvtþ)an RtUvFanafa manpþl;nUvdMeNaHRsayEdlCaCeRmIsepSgya:g smrmü}.

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RbCaBlrdæRkIRkcUleTAkñúgkm μviFIGPivDÆn_dIFøIrbs;xøÜn edIm,I[seRmc)annUveKaledAkat;bnßy PaBRkIRk nigeKaledAénkarGPivDÆesdækic©RbkbedaysmPaB RBmTaMgkMNt;[)anc,as; las;nUvtMbn;EdlRbCaBlrdærk)anR)ak;cMNUlTab EdlTnÞwmnwgenaHykcitþTukdak;pþl;CUnRbCa BlrdænUvsiT§ikan;kab;dIFøIedIm,IkarBarBYkKat;BITIpSardIFøId¾lM)ak} 32 .

ÉksarBieRKaHeyabl;enH Gnuvtþtamesc kþIRbkasrbs;semþcGKÁmhaesnabtIeteCa h‘un Esn naykrdæm®nþIénRbeTskm<úCa enAEx]sPaqñaM2003 GMBIeKalneya)aylMenAzanenA TIRkug EdlnwgtRmUv[mankarGPivDÆshKmn_R kIRkenAkñúgRkugcMnYn100shKmn_Caerogral; qñaM kñúgry³R)aMqñaM 33 . cab;taMgBIeBlRbkasenaHmk edaymanCMnYyBIPñak;garshRbCaCati RksYgerobcMEdndI )antak;EtgesckþIRBageKalneya)aylMenAzanmYy Edlbgðajya:gc,as; fa enaHCaEpñkénkic©RbwgERbgkat;bnßyPaBRkIRkrbs;xøÜn 34 . esckþIRBagenHmanKMnitpþÜcepþIm mYycMnYn mandUcCa bTbBaØtþiGMBIsuvtßiPaBkan;ka b;dIFøIry³eBlxøIenARkug PñMeBj sRmab;kartaMg lMenAzanminerobryTaMgGs;. esckþIRBagenH k¾tRmUv[kMNt;ya:gc,as;las;nUvPaBsmRsb énkarGPivDÆ CadMeNIkarEdleK)a:n;s μanfa nwgRbRBwtþieTAry³eBlR)aMbYnEx EdlenAGMLúgeBl enaH nwgmankarRbkasp¥akkarbeNþjecj nigkarruHerIeTATItaMgf μ I 3 5 .

kalviPaKsRmab;cuHsÞg;emIledIm,IkMNt; fa etIlMenAzansßitenAelIdIrdæNaxøHEdl smRsbsRmab;karpþl;siT§ikan;kab;ry³eBlmF ümeTAry³eBlEvg nigsRmab;karGPivDÆ. cMeBaHtMbn;EdlkMNt;fa minsmRsbsRmab;KMnitpþÜcepþImkarGPivDÆ { ebIGaceCos)an minRtUv pøas;bþÚrTItaMgeT} . ynþkarTTYlBakübNþwgÉkraCüRtUv)anesñIbegáIteLIgsRmab;shKmn_ Edlrgplb:HBal;. RtUvpøas;bþÚrTItaMg { eTATItaMgNamYy[enACitbMputebIGaceFVI)an nig

32

rvagyuT§sa®sþkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk nigeKa lneya)ayfñak;CatisþIBIlMenAzan/ ÉksarBiPakSa/ em:g b‘unNariT§i/ RkumRbwkSaeKalneya)aydIFøI/ RksYgerobcMEdndI nKrUbnIykm μ nigsMNg;/ PñMeBj qñaM2004. 3 3

karrIkceRmInya:gFM/ éf¶TI25 Ex]sPa qñaM2003/ sm <½n§siT§ilMenAzanGasuIGeKñy_. 3 4

sUmemIl eKalneya)ayfñak;CatisþIBIlMenAzan/ RkumkargareKalneya)aylMenAzanfñak;Cati ¬raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa/ RkumRbwkSaeKalneya)a ydIFøI¦/ PñMeBj/ éf¶TI24 ExkkákdaqñaM2006. 3 5 eyagtamesckþIRBagc,ab;enH salaRkugPñMeBjmane KalbMNgminruHerIkartaMglMenazanbc©úb,nñenAkñúg ry³eBlxøIenHeT.

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manlkçN³smRsbsRmab; »kasRbkbrbrciBa©wmCIvitnigmanesvakm μsmRsb nigcaM)ac;RtUv pþl;sMNgsmrmü nigeBl evlaRKb;RKan;sRmab;karerobcM} k¾dUcCapþl;siT§ikan;kab;eTotpg. GgÁkar elIkElgeTasGnþrCati)armÖfa TaMgÉksarbeNþaHGasnñ nigesckþIRBageKal neya)aysþIBIlMenAzanenaH minbBa¢ak;c,as;la s;GMBItYnaTIrbs;RbCaBlrdæEdl rgplb:HBal; kñúgkarkMNt;fa etIkartaMglMenAzanminerob ryenaHsmRsb b¤minsmRsbsRmab;karGPivDÆ eT. ÉksarenaHk¾xVHkarFanaGMBIkarcUlrYmrbs;shKmn_ nigkarBieRKaHeyabl;CamYy shKmn_EdlRtUveKkMNt;fa CaPUmizanfμ IenaHEdr. eKalneya)aysþIBIlMenAzanenaH enAminTan;Gnum½tCapøÚvkarenAeLIy.

cugeRkay rdæaPi)alkm<úCabnþGnuvtþeKaln eya)aysþIBIkarpþl;kic©snüaCYleTARkumh‘un ry³eBlrhUtdl;99qñaM sRmab;karGPivDÆBaNiC¢km μ CakarbþÚrnwgQñÜl nigkarvinieyaKTun. c,ab;PUmi)alqñaM2001kMNt;fa Ca {sm,TandIs Rmab;eKalbMNgGPivDÆn_esdækic©} mandUcCa dIcMkar nigdIksi]sSahkmμ 3 6 / kñúgeKalbMNgedIm,IbegáInkar vinieyaKTun/ »kaspþl;kargar/ nigkarRbkbrbrciBa©wmCIvitenAtamtMbn;CnbT nigedIm,ITajR)ak;cMNUlCUnrdæ 37 . rhUtdl; dMNac;qñaM2006 dIdaMdMNaMrbs;RbeTskm<úCa14/5PaKry RtUvCYleTAsm,Tanik 38 .

4> bTdæannigc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCatinigc,ab;Cati edaysarRbeTskm<úCa CaPaKIénktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nig

vb,Fm’ dUecñHrdæaPi)alkm<úCa mankatBVkic©tampøÚv c,ab;RtUveKarB karBar nigGnuvtþsiT§imanlMenA

3 6 tammaRta2énGnuRkwtüsþIBIsm,TandIe sdækic© ¬ExFñÚqñaM2005¦ sm,TandIesdækic©CaynþkarmYymanmuxgarpþl;

dIÉkCnrbs;rdætamry³kic©snüasm,TandIesdækic©BiesseTAsm,TanikedIm,IeRbIR)as;sRmab;eFVIGaCIvkm μksi- ]sSahkmμ . 37

Ca]TahrN_ sUmeRboeFob B½t’mansþIBIsb,TandIesd ækic©Edldak;[emIlCasaFarN³ rbs;RksYgksikm μenA eKhTMB½renH³ http://www.maff.gov.kh/elc/objectives.html. [B½t’manEdl)ancUlemIlcugeRkay enAéf¶TI25 ExsIha qñaM2007] 3 8 sm,TandIesdækic©enAkm<úCa-TsSn³siT§imnusS / tMNagBiessénelakGKÁelxaFikarGgÁkarshRbCaCati TTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusSenAkm<úCa Exmifuna qñaM2007/ TMB½r6.

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zansmrmü dUc)anEcgenAkñúgmaRta11 ¬cMNuc1¦fa³ { rdæCaPaKITaMgT,ay TTYlsÁal;nUvsiTi§rbs;mnusSmñak;² kñúgkarmankMritCIvPaBrs;enAy:ag RKb;RKan; sMrab;xøÜneKpÞal; nigsMrab;RKYsareK rYmTaMgcMNIGaharRKb;RKan; sMelokbMBak; nigTIlMenA RBmTaMgsmÖar³epSg² sRmab;eFVI[sßanPaBCIvPaB)anRbesIreT,IgCalMdab; teTA . rdæCaPaKITaMgT,ayRtUvcat;viFankar[)ansmRsbedIm,IFananUv smiTi§km μénsiTi§enH edaykarTTYlsÁal;GMBIsar³sMxan; BiessbMputénkic©shRbtibtþikarGnþrCati Ep¥kelIkar RsuHRsYlmUlmtiKñaedayesrI.} siT§imanlMenAzansmrmük¾RtUv)anTTYlsÁal;edayGnuelamtamsn§isBaØa EdlCa

katBVkic©GnþrCatiEdlRbeTskm<úCaCardæPaKI rYmman dUcCa ktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIkarlubbM)at; ral;TRmg;énkarerIseGIgBUCsasn_ 39 nigktikasBaØasþIBIkarlubbM)at;ral;TRmg;énkarerIs eGIgRbqaMgnwg®sþI 40 nigktikasBaØasþIBIsiT§ikumar41 .

esckþIRbkasCasklsþIBIsiT§imnusS k¾dUcCasn§isBaØasiT§imnusSGnþrCati EdlRbeTs km<úCa)anpþl;sc©ab½n )anpþl;nUvGnuPaBénc,ab;enAkñúgRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa tamry³maRta 31énrdæFm μnujénRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaEdl)anEcgfa 42 ³

{ RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCaTTYlsÁal; nigeKa rBsiT§imnusS dUcmanEcgkñúgFmμ nuBaØénGgÁkar shRbCaCati esckþIRbkasCasklsþIBIsiT§imnusS nigktikasBaØa RBmTaMgGnusBaØa TaMgLayTak;TgeTAnwgsiT§imnusS siT§inarI nigsiT§ikumar} 43 . CMBUkenHsegçbeLIgvijnUv bTdæannigc,ab;GnþrCatiEdlTak;TgnwgkarbeNþjedaybgçM

enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa edaymaneyagsMGagdl;c,ab;kñúgRsukpg. 3 9

maRta 5 cMNuc iii eRkamcMNuc ¬g¦. 40

maRta 14 cMNuc ¬C¦ eRkamcMNuc ¬2¦. 41

maRta 27 cMNuc ¬1¦ nigcMNuc ¬3¦. 42

)anRbkas[eRbIR)as;enAqñaM 1993. 4 3 ktikasBaØa nigGnusBaØaTaMgenH EdlTaMgktikasB aØa nigGnusBaØaEdlRbeTskm<úCaCaPaKImYyEdrenaH kñúgenaHmandUcCa ktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ nigs iT§ine)ay/ ktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ GnusBaØasþIBIsiT§ikumar/ GnusBaØasþIBIkarlubbM)at;ral;TRmg;énkarerIseGIgRbqaMgnwg®sþI/ nigGnusBaØa GnþrCatisþIBIkarlubbM)at;ral; TRmg;énkarerIseGIgBUCsasn_.

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4>1 karhamR)amGMBIkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM rdæaPaKIénktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iesdækic © sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ nigsn§isBaØaGnþr

CatiCaeRcIneTot mankrNIkic©karBarRbCaBlr dærbs;xøÜnmin[RbQmnwgkarbeNþjecjeday bgçMeTAtamsiT§imanlMenAzansmrmü edaymankrNIelIkElgticbMput. KN³kmμ aFikarsþIBI siT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’/ GgÁkarCM najrbs;shRbCaCatiEdlTTYlbnÞúkBinitütamdan karGnuvtþktikasBaØaenH )a nbBa¢ak;enAkñúgGnusasn_rYm 44 rbs;xøÜnfa KN³km μaFikar{cat; Tukfa RBwtþikarN_énkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM Bi tCaminRsbtamlkçxNÐrbs;ktikasBaØaenHeT nigGaceFVIeTA)anEtkñúgkrNIEdlsßitenAkñúgk al³eTs³BiessbMput RBmTaMgRtUvGnuelameTA tameKalkarN_c,ab;GnþrCatiEdlBak;B½n§eTotpg} 45 . eTaHbICamankrNIkic©CaeRcIneTAelIrdæ EdlsßitenAeRkamktikasBaØasþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ tRmUv[GnuvtþtamEbb TMenIbenaHk¾eday k¾krNIkic©bBaÄb;karbeNþjecj edaybgçMCakrNIbnÞan; RBmTaMgdUcKñanwg krNIkic©mineRCotERCkbuKÁlTaMgLayEdl TTYl)annUvsiT§imanlMenAzaneLIy. KN³km μaFikarpñksiT§imnusS 46 )ansMEdgnUvkar)armÖfa karbeNþjedaybgçMCamUl ehtunaM[ mankarMelaPktikasBaØasþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ nigneya)ay edayELkmaRta17 Edl)an EcgCaBiessfa { K μanCnNamñak; RtUvTTYlrgkareRCotERCktamGMeBIcitþ b¤edayxusc,ab; kñúgCÍvít ÉkCn RKYsar lMenAdæan sMbuRteqøIyqøgr bs;xøÜn b¤RtUvrgkarb:HBal; edayxusc,ab;eTA elIkitiþys nigekrþ×eQ μaHrbs;xøÜneLIy. nigfaCnRKb;rUbman siTi§[c,ab;karBar RbqaMgnwgkar eRCotERCk b¤karb:HBal;EbbenH } 47 .

4 4 Gnusasn_rYmKWCakarbkRsayBnül;bBa¢ak;CapøÚvkarGMB IbTbBaØtþi b¤TsSn³NamYyGMBIsn§isBaØasiT§imnusS GnþrCati edayGgÁkarEdlTTYlbnÞúkBinitütamdanelIkarGn uvtþrbs;xøÜn. Gnusasn_rYmR tUveKeRbICamUldæansRmab; karseRmccitþEdleFVIeLIgedaytulakarCatienAtambNþáaRbeTsnanaCaeRcIn. 4 5 KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’/ Gnusasn_rYmTI4³ siT§imanlMenAzansmrmü ¬maRta11 cMNucTI1¦ énktikasBaØa/ eFVIeLIgenAsm½yRbCu MelIikTI16 éf¶TI13ExFñÚqñaM1991 kfax½NÐ18. 4 6 KN³km μaFikarsiT§imnusSKWCaGgÁkarCMnajmYyEdlmanGaN tþiRKb;RKg nigemIlkarxusRtUvelIkarGnuvtþ ktikasBaØaGnþrCati sþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ nigneya)ay. 47

sUmemIl karsnñidæanGMBIkarGegátelIRbeTseknya (Kenya) EdlCar)aykarN_rbs;KN³km μaFikarsiT§imnusS/ Éksarrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCatielx A/60/40 (Vol. I) (2004-5)/ kfax½NÐ 86 cMNuc ¬22¦.

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karhamR)amGMBIkarbeNþjecjedaybgçMenH minGnuvtþcMeBaHkarbeNþjecjTaMg LayNaEdlGnuvtþ edayGnuelamtamc,ab; ni gRsbtamc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCatienaHeT 48 .

c,ab;rbs;RbeTskm<úCamin)anhamR)amCaB iesscMeBaHkarbeNþjecjedaybgçMenHeT

b:uEnþmaRta44énrdæFm μnuBaØ EdlkarBarsiT§iRbCaBlrdækm<úCaRKb;rUb TaMgbuKÁlnigsmUhPaB EdlmansiT§imandIFøIenaH mankRmitya:gFMcMeBaHGnuPaBEdlmaRtaenHEcgfa { siT§idkhUt km μsiT§iGMBICnNamYy)anenaH luHRtaEtRbeyaCn_saFarN³tMrUv[eFVIkñúgkrNIEdlc,ab;)an bBaØtþiTuk ehIy®tUvpþl;sMNgCamunedaysmrmünigyutþiFm ’}.

4>2 karkarBarRbqaMgnwgkarbeNþjedaybgç M kñúgnamCardæPaKIénktikasBaØamYycMnYnsþIBIsiT§imnusS RbeTskm<úCak¾mankatBVkic©RtUv

bBaÄb; nigkarBarkuM[mankarbeNþjecjedaybgçMenHEdr 49 . EpñkmYyya:gsMxan;kñúgcMeNam katBVkic©enHKW krNIkic©hamR)amminGnuBaØa t[mankarbeNþjecjedaybgçM. katBVkic©mYy eTotKWkrNIkic©RtUvkarBarCnRKb;rUbEdlsßitenAeRkamsmtßkic©rbs;xøÜnBIkarbeNþjecjeday bgçM EdlGnuvtþedayPaKITIbI. katBVkic©ya:gsMxan;cMeBaHkarkarBarEbbenHKWRtUvGnum½t nig Gnuvtþc,ab;EdlRsbtambTdæansiT§imnusS kñúgkarkarBarmin[mankarbeNþjecj edaybgçM.

enAkñúgGnusasn_rYmrbs;xøÜn sþIBIkar beNþjecjedaybgçM ¬Gnusasn_rYmTI7¦ KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’)anbBa¢ak;fa karbeNþjecjGacGnuvtþeTA )an EtkñúgkrNIEdlkarkarBartamnItiviFIc,ab;ya:gBitR)akdRtUv)anGnuvtþ EdlnItiviFITaMgenaH mandUcCa³

4 8

KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’/ Gnusasn_rYmTI7³ siT§imanlMenAzansmrmü ¬maRta11 cMNuc ¬1¦ énktikasBaØa¦/ karbeNþjecjedaybgçM/ sm ½yRbCuMelIkTi16 éf¶TI20Ex]sPa qñaM1997 kfax½NÐ 3. 4 9

]TahrN_ ktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmki c© nigvb,Fm’ maRta11 cMNuc ¬1¦/ GnusBaØasþIBI karbM)at;ral;TRmb;énkarerIseGIgRbqaMg®sþIePT maRta14 cMNuc ¬2¦ ¬C¦/ GnusBaØasþIBIsiT§irbs;kumar maRta27 cMNuc ¬3¦/ nigGnusBaØaGnþrCati sþIBIkarbM)at;ra l;TRmg;énkarerIseGIgCatisasn_ maRta5 cMNuc ¬g¦ ¬ iii ¦.

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ƒ { pþl;»kassRmab;BieRKaHeyabl;BitR)akdCamYyRbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal; ƒ CUndMNwgRKb;RKan;nigsmrmüeTACnrgplb:HBal;muneBlbeNþjecj ƒ enAeBlEdlGnuvtþ)an pþl;B½t’manGMBIsMeNIbeNþjecj nigGMBIeKalbMNgEdl

CaCeRmIssRmab;kareRbIR)as;dI niglMe nAzan nigeRtombRmugCaeRsceTAtameBl evlaya:gsmrmüsRmab;RbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal;TaMgGs;

ƒ manvtþmanrbs;m®nþIrdæaPi)al b¤tMNagrdæaPi)alenAeBlbeNþjecj ƒ CnRKb;rUbEdlGnuvtþkarbeNþjecjenaHRtUvbgðajGtþsBaØaN[)anRtwmRtUv ƒ karbeNþjecjenaHminRtUvRbRBwtþeTA CaBiessenAeBlmanGakasFatuminl¥ b¤

eBlyb;eT ebIsinCaRbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal;enaHminyl;RBm ƒ pþl;dMeNaHRsaytampøÚvc,ab; ƒ enAeBlEdlGacGnuvtþ)an RtUvpþl;CMnYyEpñkc,ab;eTARbCaBlrdæEdlRtUvkarCMnYy

Epñkc,ab;enH edIm,IEsVgrkdMeNaHRsayBItulakar } 50 . müa:geTot eyagtamGnusasn_rYmTI7 )anbBa¢ak;fa karbeNþjecjGacnwgGnuvtþ

eTA)anEtkñúgkrNIEdlvaCaCeRmIscugeRkay bn Þab;BI)anGnuvtþRKb;lT§PaBkñúgkarEsVgrk CeRmIsepSg²sRmab;karbeNþjecjenaHEtb:ueNÑaH. karbeNþjTaMgGs;RtUvEtmanEpnkar nigRtUvGnuvtþedaymankarBieRKaHeyabl;CamYyRb CaBlrdæ b¤RkumEdlrgplb:HBal; kñúgkic© RbwgERbgedIm,IbeBa©ós b¤bnßykareRbIkmøaMg[enAkRmitticbMput 51 .

rdæTaMgLayEdlCaPaKIénktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIB IsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ RtUv Fanafa )aneRtomlMenAzanEdlCaCeRmIssmrmünigsMNgRKb;RKan;sRmab;kar)at;bg;TaMg Gs; CUnRbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal; muneBlGnuvtþkarbeNþjecj edayminKitfa BYkKat; CYl Cam©as; CaGñkkan;kab;dIb¤lMenAzanEdlm anbBaðaenaHeLIy. müa:geTot karbeNþjecj TaMgGs;minRtUv {bNþal[buKÁlRKb;rUbK μanlMenAzanrs;enA b¤TTYlrgkarrMelaPsiT§iepSg² eTotrbs;RbCaBlrdæeLIy} 52 .

50

KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmic© nigvb,Fm’/ Gnusasn_rYmTI7 kfax½NÐTI15/ qñaM1997. 51

dUckMNt;cMNaMxagelIEdr Rtg;kfax½NÐ13. 52 dUckMNt;cMNaMxagelIEdr Rtg;kfax½NÐ16.

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edaysarRbeTskm<úCa CaPaKIénktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nig vb,Fm’ dUecñHRbeTskm<úCamankatBVkic©CabnÞan ;RtUvGnum½tviFankarmanRbsiT§PaBEdlman eKalbMNgFana[)an ya:gticbMput nUvkRmitsuvtßi PaBénsiT§ikan;kab;RKb;RKan; edIm,IkarBar RbCaBlrdæTaMgmUlBIkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM BIkaryayInana nigkarKMramepSg²eTot. tamKN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigv b,Fm’ )anbBa¢ak;ya:gc,as;fa³

{ siT§ikan;kab; maneRcInrUbPaBdUcCa karkan;kab; lMenAzanCYl ¬rbs;rdæb¤rbs;ÉkCn¦ lMenAzanrYm Ptisnüa dImanm©as;kan;kab; lMenAzanse®gÁaHbnÞan; niglMenAzanmin erobry rYmTaMgkarkan;kab;dIb¤Gclvtßúpg. eTaHbICamansiT§ikan;kab;eRcInRbePT k¾eday k¾mnusSRKb;rUb Kb,ImansuvtßiPaBén siT§ikan;kab;mYykRmitEdlFana)annUvkar karBartampøÚvc,ab;min[mankarbeNþjecjedaybgçM karb:unb:gyayI nigkarKMram epSg²eToteLIy. ehtudUecñHehIy rdæPaKIR tUvcat;viFankarCabnþbnÞab;kñúgeKalbMNg edIm,I BieRKaHeyabl;GMBIsuvtßiPaBkan;kab;Rsbc,ab;CamYyRbCaBlrdæ nigRkumRKYsar TaMgLayEdlbc©úb,nñenHkMBugxVHkarkarBartampøÚvc,ab; edayBieRKaHeyabl;ya:gBit R)akdCamYyRbCaBlrdæ nigRkumTaMgGs;EdlTTYlrgplb:HBal; } 53 .

edIm,Ipþl;karENnaMCUnrdæaPi)alsþIBIviFankarnign ItiviFIEdlRtUvGnum½t edIm,IFanafa karbeNþj ecjedayEp¥kelIkarGPivDÆ minRtUvGnuvtþeda ybMBannwgbTdæansiT§imnusSGnþrCati Edlman Rsab; nigedIm,IkuM[eTACamUlehtunaM[man {k arbeNþjecjedaybgçM} GñkraykarN_Biess TTYlbnÞúksiT§imanlMenAdæansmrmüEdlCaEpñkmYy énsiT§imankMritCIvPaBsmrmü ¬cab;BIeBl enHeTAehAfa GñkraykarN_BiesssþIBIlMenAzansmrmü¦ )anbegáIteLIg nUveKalkarN_RKwH nigeKalkarN_ENnaMsþIBIkarbeNþjecj nigk arpøas;lMenAzanedayEp¥kelI karGPivDÆ ¬ehAfaeKalkarN_mUldæan¦ 54 . eKalkarN_ENnaMEdlqøúHbBa©aMgBIkarGPivDÆbTdæannig nItisa®sþEdlmanRsab;Tak;TgnwgbBaðaenH RtUv)anBicarNaedayRkumRbwkSasiT§i mnusSenAqñaM

53

KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb, Fm’/ Gnusasn_TI4 kfax½NÐ8 cMNuc¬k¦. 54

eKalkarN_mUldæan nigeKalkarN_ENnaMGMBIkarbeNþjecj nigkarruHerInigtaMglMenAzanf μ IedayEp¥kelI karGPivDÆ ]bsm<½n§1 énr)aykarN_ elx A/HRC/4/18 rbs;GñkraykarN_BiesssþIBIlMenAzansmrmü EdlCaEpñkénsiT§imanbTdæanrs;enAsmrmü.

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2007 nigRtUv)anbBa©ÚlbEnßmeTAkñúgr)aykarN_ enH. eKalkarN_TaMgenaHman bBa©Úlya:g lMGitnUvbTbBaØtþisþIBIviFankarEdlrdæTaMgLayRtUvGnuvtþ muneBl kñúgeBl nig eRkayeBl beNþjecjedaybgçM edIm,IFanaGnuvtþtameKalkarN_Bak;B½n§nanaénc,ab;siT§i mnusSGnþrCati.

GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatieCOfa eKal karN_mUldæanTaMgenHCakarENnaMya:gl¥ bMputsRmab;kartak;EtgeKalkarENnaMsþIBIkarbeNþjfñak;Cati.

karkarBartampøÚvc,ab;RbqaMgnwgkarbeNþjedaybgçM CaTUeTAtamc,ab;énRbeTskm<úCa minrwgmaMeT. c,ab;PUmi)al Edltak;EtgeLIgkñúgTsSn³edIm,IFanakarGnuvtþsiT§ikm μsiT§iEdl FanaedayrdæFmμ nuBaØ maneKalkarN_TUeTAeRcInEdltRmUv[manGnuRkwtü 55 nigbTbBa¢a sRmab;Gnuvtþ[manRbsiT§PaB. cab;taMgBIc,ab;enHRtUv)anGnum½tenAqñaM2001mk Rkb xNÐc,ab; )anrIkceRmInCabeNþIr² b:uEnþminTan;eBjeljenAeLIy.

maRta35EcgGMBInItiviFIbeNþjGñkkan;kab;GclnvtßúEdlK μanb½NÑ b¤manb½NÑminRKb; RKan;. kar[cakecjEbbenH GaceFVIeTA)anE ttamdIkatulakareTAtamkaresñIsuMrbs;GñkEdl GHGagfaxøÜnCam©as;GclnvtßúenaHEtb:ueNÑaH ehIykarGHGagEbbenHKWsßit enAelIkarbBa¢ak; nig pþl;suBlPaBedaytulakar. c,ab;enHk¾)anEc gEdrfa fVIebItulakarminGacbdiesFdIka beNþjecjedayKaMRTdl;GñkEdlmanb½NÑkm μsiT§imansuBlPaBeBjeljEdlmann½yfa Ca m©as;kmμsiT§iRsbc,ab;k¾eday k¾GaCJaFrmansmtßkic©Ga csuMBüÜrkarGnuvtþ CabeNþaHGasnñ)an ebIsinCakar[beNþjecjenaH {GacbNþal[ma nPaBvwkvr b¤manplvi)akF¶n;F¶rdl;sgÁm} ¬maRta36¦.

tamn½yénsuvtßiPaBénkarkan;kab;dIFøI c,ab;PUmi)alepÞrsiT§iePaK³BImuneTACasiT§ikan; kab;kmμsiT§i nig)andak;kMhitelIeKalkarN_c,ab;cas; EdlePaK³naM[køayCakm μsiT§ielIdIEdl )ankan;kab;munqñaM2001. tammaRta31 ¬énCMB Uk4¦ énc,ab;enH buKÁlNamñak;EdlGac bBa¢ak;ePaK³edayK μankartva:tampøÚvc,ab;ry³eBlR)aMqñaMmu neBlc,ab;enHcUlCaFrman ¬enAqñaM 2001¦ GackøayCakm μsiT§ikrelIdIenaH edaykarkan;kab;enaHK μankarCMTas;ry³eBlR)aMqñaM

55

GnuRkwtüKWCaÉksarc,ab;EdlmanTRmg;CakarbBa¢aEpñkrdæ)aledIm,IGnuvtþnigbBa¢ak; c,as;las;GMBIbTbBaØtþién c,ab;. GnuRkwtüTaMgenHmanninñakarRt UverobcMtak;EtgCaesckþIRBageLIg ed ayRksYgBak;B½n§ eRkaymkRtUvBinitü nigGnum½tedyKN³rdæm®nþI nigcuHhtßelxaedaynaykrdæm®nþI.

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GackøayCakm μsiT§ikrRsbc,ab;. {sm,TandIsgÁmkic©} KWCaynþkarEbgEcgdIFøICaRbB½n§EdlbegáIteLIgeTAtamc,ab;enH

EdltammeFüa)ayenH dIÉkCnrbs;rdæ 56 GacnwgRtUvEckCadIlMenAzan nigdIksikmμ CUnRkum RKYsarRkIRknigK μanlMenAzan57 . niyayCarYm bTbBaØtþiTaMgenHkarBarsuvtßiPaBkan;kab; nig RtUv)aneKyl;eXIjfa CabTbBaØtþiCMnYseKalkarN_cas;sþIBIkm μsiT§itamry³ePaK³.

suvtßiPaBénkarkan;kab;k¾RtUvBRgIkeTAdl;dIF øIrbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic edaypþl;nUvkm μ siT§ismUhPaBeTAshKmn_TaMgenaH. bTbBaØtþiT aMgenH karBarshKmn_CnCatedImPaKticBI kar)at;bg;lMenAzan 58 .

GnuRkwtüsþIBIsm,TandIesdækic© Edl)ancuHhtß elxaenAéf¶TI27ExFñÚ qñaM2005 EcgGMBI lkçxNÐTUeTAEdlRtUvEtbMeBjsRmab;karpþl;sm,Tan Edlpþl;CUnshKmn_edaykarBar RbqaMgnwgkarbeNþjecj. CMBUk2 maRta4)anEcgfa {GaCJaFrkic©snüaRtUvFanafa K μan karpøas;bþÚrruHerIlMenAzanedaybgçMcMeBaHGñkka n;kab;dIRsbc,ab;enaHeT nigRtUveKarBsiT§idIFøI ÉkCn}.

4>3 siT§icUlrYmnigBieRKaHeyabl; siT§irbs;CnRKb;rUbkñúgkarcUlrYmseRmccitþ Edlb:HBal;dl;karGnuvtþsiT§irbs;Kat; RtUv

manmUldæanedayEp¥ktambTdæannigc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCati. TaMgesckþIRbkasCasklsþIBIsiT§imnusS nigktika sBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ nigsiT§i

neya)ay FanasiT§icUlrYmkñúgrdæaPi)al nigkñúgkardwknaMkic©karsaFarN³. eyagtam KN³km μaFikarsiT§imnusS EdlbkRsaymaRta25énktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ nig siT§ineya)ayenaH siT§ienHmandUcCasiT§icUlrYm kñúgkarerobcMnigGnuvtþeKalneya)ay cab;BI

56

dIÉkCnrbs;rdæsMedAdl;dIEdlCakmμ siT§irbs;saFarN³mYyRbePT. CMBUk2 énc,ab;PUmi)alqñaM2001 kMNt; ya:gc,as;dac;BIKñarvagdIÉkCnrbs;rdæ EdlnwgGacRtUvepÞr nigeRbIR)as;sRmab;karGPivDÆsgÁmnigesdækic© nigdIsa FarN³rbs;rdæ EdlCadIminGacepÞr)an. ¬bBa¢ak;bEnßm¦ 57 GnuRkwtüsþIBIsm,TandIsgÁmkic© / éf¶TI19ExmInaqñaM2003/ raCrdæaPi)alkm<úCa. 58

CMBUk3 Epñk2³ GclRTBürbs;shKmn_CnCat iedImPaKtic/ CaBiessmaRta26 nig28.

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fñak;mUldæan rhUtdl;fñak;Cati nigGnþrCati. { kardwknaMkic©karsaFarN³ Edl)anelIkeLIgenAkfaxNÐ ¬k¦ KWCaTsSn³ya:gTUlM TUlayEdlTak;TgnwgkarGnuvtþGMNacneya)ay CaBiess karGnuvtþGMNacnItibBaØtþi nItiRbtibtþi nigrdæ)al. vaRKbdNþb;RKb;Epñkénrdæ)alsaFarN³ nigkartak;Etg nigkarGnuvtþ eKalneya)ayenAfñak;GnþrCati fñak;Cati fñak;tMbn; nigfñak;mUldæan} 59 . CaBiess Tak;TgnwgkarhamR)amkarbeNþjedaybgçMenaH Gnusasn_rYmTI7rbs;

KN³km μaFikarsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’)anbBa¢ak;fa³ { rdæPaKIRtUvFana Gnuvtþ[Gs;lT§PaBkñúgkarEsVgrkCeRmIsepSgedayBieRKaHeyabl; CamYyRbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal; kñúgTsSn³edIm,IbeBa©ós b¤edIm,Ikat;bnßykareRbI kmøaMg[enAticbMput muneBlGnuvtþkarbeNþjecjNamYy CaBiesscMeBaHkarbeNþj EdlmanRTg;RTayFMEdlb:HBal;dl;RkummnusSCaeRcIn} 60 . karkarBartamnItiviFIsMxan;²edIm,IbeBa©óskarbeNþjedaybgçMman{ pþl;»kas sRmab;

BieRKaHeyabl;ya:gBitR)akdCamYyRbCaBlrdæE dlrgplb:HBal;/>> pþl;B½t’manGMBIsMeNI beNþjecj/ nigenAeBlEdlGacGnuvtþ)an pþl;B½t’manGMBIeKalbMNgCaCeRmIsepSg cMeBaH dIb¤lMenAzanEdlRtUveRbIR)as; RtUveRtomTuk CaeRsc eTAtameBlevlasmrmüCUnRbCaBlrdæ TaMgGs;Edlrgplb:HBal;/ >>> pþl;dMeNaHRsaytampøÚvc,ab;/ nigebIGaceFVI)anRtUvpþl; CMnYy Epñkc,ab;CUnRbCaBlrdæEdlRtUvkarCMnYyEbbenHedIm,IEsVgrkdMeNaHRsayBItulakar} 61 .

enAkñúgeKalkarN_mUldæanEdltak;EtgeL IgedayGñkraykarN_BiessGMBIlMenAzan RKb;RKan; eKalkarN_enHRtUvkarBRgIkbEnßmeTots Rmab;Gnuvtþn_ edayEpñkelIbTdæan nigc,ab; siT§imnusSGnþrCati. eKalkarN_EdlRtUverobcMbEnßmenaHrYmman³

{ RkumnigRbCaBlrdæEdlGacnwgrgplb:HBal;TaMgGs; rYmTaMg®sþI CnCatiedImPaKtic

59 KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ nigney a)ay/ Gnusasn_rYmTI25/ { siT§icUlrYmkñúgkic©karsaFarN³ }. Éksarrbs;

GgÁkarshRbCaCati elx UN. Doc. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.7 (1996), kfax½NÐ5. 60

Gnusasn_rYmTI7³ karbeNþjecjedaybgçM nigsiT§i manlMenAzansmrmü ¬maRta11 kfax½NÐ1/ qñaM1997/ kfax½NÐ13. 61

KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’/ Gnusasn_TI7 kfax½NÐ15.

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nigRbCaBlrdæBikar k¾dUcCaGñkepSgeTotEdlbeRmIkarkñúgnamRbCaBlrdærgplb:H Bal;man siT§iTTYlB½t’manBak;B½n§ siT§iBieRKaHeyabl; nigkarcUlrYmya:geBjelj kñúgdMeNIrkar taMgBIdMbUgrhUtdl;cb; nigelIkeLIgnUvsMeNIEdlCaCeRmIsepSgEdl GaCJaFrRtUvBicarNaya:gRtwmRtUv. enAkñúgkrNIEdlminGacQandl;kic©RBmeRBog sþIBIsMeNICeRmIsepSg enAkñúgcMeNamP aKIBak;B½n§eT enaHGgÁkarÉkraCüEdlman GMNacCamUldæanrwgmaM dUcCa salaCMnuMCMrH tulakar b¤RBHGyükar RtUvsRmuHsRmYl/ eFVICaGaCJakNþal b¤seRmcesckþI enAeBl EdlcaM)ac;}. ¬kfaxNÐ 38¦. {enAkñúg dMeNIrkareFVIEpnkar RtUvpþl;»kassRmab; crca nigBieRKaHeyabl;ya:gTUlMTUlay RbkbedayRbsiT§PaBCUn RbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal;TaMgGs; rYmTaMg®sþI nigRkum EdlgayrgeRKaHnigTn;exSaypg ehIyeBlEdlcaM)ac;RtUvGnuvtþtambNþaviFankar b¤ nItiviFIBiess} . ¬kfax½NÐ39¦ 62 . maRta35énrdæFmμ nuBaØ karBarsiT§irbs;RbCaBlrdækñúgkarcUlrYmya:gskm μkñúgCIvPaB

neya)ay esdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ rIÉmaRta41EcgnUvlkçxNÐya:gTUlMTUlay GMBIesrI PaBkñúgkarbeBa©jmti esrIPaBEpñksarB½t’man esrIPaBkñúgkare)aHBumÖpSay nig esrIPaBkñúg karRbCuM. eRkABIc,ab;sarB½t’man K μanc,ab;NaepSgEdleFVI[siT§iEdlEcgkñúgrdæFm μnuBaØenH GacGnuvtþ)anCak;EsþgenaHeLIy rYmTaMgc,ab; RKb;RKg siT§iTTYlB½t’manpg. RksYgTMnak; TMngsPanigGFikarkic© kMBugdMeNIrkartak ;EtgÉksareKalneya)ayedIm,IbegáItmUldæan sRmab;c,ab;EbbenH 63 .

enAkñúgbribTBiessénsm,TandIesdækic© GnuRkwtüsþIBIsm,TandIesdækic©)andak;ecjnUv lkçxNÐCaeRcInsRmab;karBieRKaHeyabl; nigkarcUlrYmCasaFarN³.

62

eKalkarN_mUldæan nigeKalkarENnaMsþIBIkarbeNþjecjnigkarruHerIlMenAzanedayep¥kelIkarGPivDÆ/ Éksarelx A/HRC/4/18. RtUvbBa¢ak;bEnßm. 63

Ca]TahrN_ sUmemIl³ CYyRbeTskm<úCaedIm,IGPivDÆ siT§iTTY lB½t’man GMBIÉksareKalneya)ay/ Pñak;gar USAID enAeKhTMB½r http://phnompenh.usembassy.gov/usaid_monasri_mou.html.

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4>4 siT§imandMeNaHRsayRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB rdæPaKIénktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ nigsiT§ineya)ay nigktikasBaØaGnþrCati

sþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ 64 mankatBVkic©Fanafa mandMeNaHRsayRbkbeday RbsiT§PaBCUnRbCaBlrdæEdlRtUveKrMelaPsiT§ir bs;Kat;. siT§ienHenAeBlEdlpþl;CUnehIy GaCJaFrmansmtßkic© 65 RtUvEtGnuvtþ. KN³km μaFikarEpñksiT§imnusS)anbBa¢ak;enAkñúg Gnusasn_rYmTI31fa ktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iBlrdænigsiT§ineya)ay

>>> tRmUv[rdæPaKITaMgGs;pþl;sMNgCUnbuKÁlRKb;rUbEdlsiT§iEcgkñúgktikasBaØarbs; Kat;RtUveKrMelaP. edayK μansMNgCUnbuKÁlRKb;rUbEdlsiT§iiEcgkñúgktikasBaØarbs;Kat;RtUveK rMelaPeTenaHmann½yfa katBVkic©RtUvpþl;dMeNaHRsayRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB >>> min RtUv)aneKykmkGnuvtþeT >>> . KN³km μaFikar kt;smÁal;eXIjfa ebIsinCaman»kassmRsb sMNgenaHGacman karCYsCuleLIgvij kars þarnItism,Ta nigviFankar Rbkbeday PaBeBjcitþ dUcCakarsuMeTasCasaFarN³ karrMlwkCasaFarN³ karFanafaminman krNIrEbbenaHekIteLIgCaf μ I nigkarpøas;bþÚreTAtamc,ab;ni gkarGnuvtþn_EdlsmRsb k¾dUcCa karnaMCnel μ IsEdlrMelaPsiT§imnusSeLIgtulakaredIm,IrkyutþiFm’CaedIm 66 .

kñúgkrNIBiessEdlmankrNIkic© RtUvhamR)amnigkarBarkuM[mankarbeNþjecj edaybgçM KN³kmμ aFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigv b,Fm’ )ankMNt;nUvEpñkmYycMnYndUcCa { ¬k¦ karGMBavnavtampøÚvc,ab;EdlmaneKalbMNgTb;sáab;karbeNþj b¤karuHerItamEpnkar tamry³karecjGFibBa¢a/ ¬x¦ nItiviFItampøÚv c,ab; edIm,IEsVgrksMNgeRkayBIkarbeNþjecj edayxusc,ab;/ ¬K¦ bNþwgRbqaMgnwgcMNat;karxusc,ab;EdlGnuvtþ b¤KaMRTedaym©as;dI ¬minfa Cam©as;dIrdæ b¤ÉkCneT¦EdlTak;TgnwgkarkMNt; karCYl karCYsCullMenAzan nigTRmg;énkar

64

sUmemIl Gnusasn_rYmTI9. 65

ktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iBlrdænigsiT§ineya)ay/ maRta2>3. 66

KN³km μaFikarsiT§imnusS Gnusasn_rYm elx31 maRta2énktikasBaØa³ lkçN³énkatBVkic©TUeTAkMNt;elIrdæCa PaKIcMeBaHktikasBaØa Éksarrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCti UN Doc. CCPR/C74/CRP.4/Rev.6 / éf¶TI21Exemsa qñaM2004/ kfax½NÐ16.

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erIseGIgCatisasn_b¤TRmg;epSg²eTot >>> 67 }. KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nig vb,Fm’ k¾)anbBa¢ak;Edrfa GaCJaFrmansmtßkic ©RtUvEtFanafa buKÁlEdlBak;B½n§mansiT§i TTYlsMNgsmrmü sRmab;RTBüsm,tþiEdlxUcxat TaMgrbs;rbrpÞal;xøÜnnigGclnvtßú 68 . tam karbBa¢ak;rbs;KN³km μaFikarenH rdæPaKITaMgLay { RtUveFVI[R)akdfa buKÁlTaMgGs;EdlBak; B½n§ mansiT§iTTYlsMNgsmrmüsRmab;RTBüsm,tþi TaMgRTBüsm,tþipÞal;xøÜn nigGclnvtßú EdlTTYlplb:Hb:HBal;} 69 .

tameKalkarN_CamUldæan)anbBa¢ak;fa siT§imandMeNaHRsayRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB sRmab;karbeNþjecjedaybgçM RtUvmansiT§i TTYl)anyutþiFm’ TTYlsMNg karCYlCulnig RbKl;CUnvij kartaMglMenAzanf μI nigkarsþarnItism,TaeLIgvij. eKalkarN_EdlRtUvGnuvtþ cMeBaHkrNInImYy²RtUvBRgIk[)anlMGitb EnßmmYykRmiteTot ¬sUmemIl]bsm<½n§¦.

tMNagBiessrbs;elakGKÁelxaGgÁkarshRbC aCati)anKUsbBa¢ak; GMBIkarxkxankñúg karrkdMeNaHRsaytamRbB½n§tulakarenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa³

{ karxVHÉkraCüPaB nigbUrNPaBrbs;tulkar/ GMNacRBHraCGaCJanigCMnajviC¢aCIvc,ab; bgá[mankarKMramkMEhgya:gF¶n;F¶rcMe BaHsiT§imnusS >>> RbCaBlrdæEdlKμ ankMhus tambNþwgrbs;rdæaPi)al køayCaCnrgeRKaHedaysarRbB½n§c,ab;enaH. ehtudUecñHehIy edaysßitenAya:gqøayBIkarkarBarsiT§imnusS RbB½n§c,ab;køayCaPñak;garya:gFMkñúg kar dak;KMnab} 70. tammaRta39énrdæFm μnuBaØ)anEcgfa³ { RbCaBlrdæEx μrmansiT§ibþwgbrihar bwþgtva: rWbþwg

TarsMNgCYsCulkarxUcxatEdlbNþalmkBIGMeBIxu sc,ab;rbs;GgÁkarrdæ rbs;GgÁkarsgÁm nig rbs;buKÁlikénGgÁkarTaMgenaH. karedaHRsaybNþwgtva: nigsMNgCYsCulkarxUcxatCa

67 Gnusasn_rYmelx4/ kfax½NÐ 17. 68

KN³km μaFikarsþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigv b,Fm’/ Gnusasn_rYmelx 7/ kfax½NÐ13. 69

Gnusasn_rYmelx 7/ kfax½NÐ13. 70 r)aykarN_rbs;tMNagBiessénGKÁelxaFikarGgÁkars hRbCaCati TTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusSRbcaMenARbeTs km<úCa EdlepJICUneTARkumRbwikSasiT§imnusS/ Éksarrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCati UN Doc. A/HRC//4/36 éf¶TI30Exmkra qñaM2007 kfax½NÐ40.

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smtßkic©rbs;tulakar }. TaMgc,ab;rdæFm μnuBaØ nigc,ab;PUmi)almanbTbBaØtþiGMBIsMNgsmrmü nigyutþiFm’ eTA

tamsßanPaBénkardkhUtkmμ siT§i71. sMNgEbbenaHRtUvpþl;muneBldkhUt. maRta5énc,ab; PUmi)al )anEcgfa { kardkhUtkm μsiT§iRtUveFVIeTAtamTRmg;nignItiviFIbBaØtþiedayc,ab; nigbT bBa¢abnÞab;BI)anpþl;sMNgCamunedaysmrmünigyutþiFm’ }. { c,ab;nigbTbBa¢a} EdlbBaØtþi sRmab;nItiviFIenAminTan;Gnum½tenAeLIy.

4>5 karhamR)amcMeBaHkareRbIkmøaMgeRcInelIslb;enAeBlmincaM)ac; bTbBaØtþiGMBIsiT§irs;ran nigsnþisuxrbs;mnusSenAkñúgktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ

nigsiT§ineya)ay 72 kMNt;katBVkic©[GaCJaFrkm<úCaeRbIk møaMgEtkñúgkrNIEdlminGacecos)an nigCakarcaM)ac;bMputEtb:ueNÑaH nigEtkñúgkr NIEdl)anCUndMNwgya:gRKb;RKan;bMput. tam bTdæanGnþrCati m®nþIGnuvtþc,ab;TaMgLayRtUv³

ƒ { GnuvtþmeFüa)ayGhigSa [Gs;lT§PaBEdl GaceFVI)an muneRbIkmøaMgnigGavuF. m®nþIGnuvtþc,ab;GaceRbIkmøaMgnigGavuF EtkñúgkrNIEdlkareRbImeFüa)ayepSg² enAEtK μanRbsiT§PaB b¤minGacTTYllT§pltamkarrMBwgTuk } 73 .

ƒ eRbIGavuFEt { kñúgkrNIEdlCnel μIsEdlCamuxsBaØaeRbIGavuFtbt b¤ebImindUecñaHeT bgáeRKaHfñak;dl;GayuCIvitrbs;GñkepSg nigenAkñúgkrNIEdleRbIviFankarRsalK μan RbsiT§PaBkñúgkarTb;sáat;b¤Xat;xøÜnCnel μ IsEdlCab;sgS½y)anEtb:ueNÑaH } 74 .

71rdæFmμ nuBaØénRBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa maRta44/ c,ab;PUmi)alqñaM2001 maRta5. 72

sUmemIl maRta6 cMNuc¬1¦ nigmaRta9 cMNuc ¬1¦. 73

eKalkarN_TI4 éneKalkarN_mUldæan sþIBIkareRbIkmøaMg nigGavuFedaym®nþIGnuvtþc,ab; ¬eKalkarN_mUldæan rbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCati¦/ Gnum½tedaymhasnñi)aTelIkTI 8énGgÁkarshRbCaCatisþIBIkarTb;sáat;bT]Rkidæ nig karRbRBwtþcMeBaHCnelμ Is/ enATIRkughava:Na RbeTsKuy)a EdlRbRBw tþeTABIéf¶TI27 ExsIha dl;éf¶TI7ExkBaØa qñaM1990. 74 RkmsIlFm’rbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCatisRmab;m®nþIGnuvtþc,ab; EdlGnum½tedayesckþIseRmccitþ 34/169 éf¶TI17ExFñÚqñaM1979 rbs;mhasnñi)aténGg ÁkarshRbCaCati maRta3/ esckþIBnül;.

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

ebIsinCa minGacbeBa©óskareRbIkmøaMgnigGavuF)aneT eKalkarN_TI5éneKalkarN_ mUldæanrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCati Ca]TahrN_ bBa¢ak;fa m®nþIGnuvtþc,ab;TaMgLay³

{ ¬k¦ RtUvEtGnuvtþkarTb;sáat;EbbenaH nigGnuvtþ[RsbeTAnwgsPaBF¶n;F¶rénbTel μ Is nigeKalbMNgRsbc,ab;EdlRtUvGnuvtþ[TTYl)aneCaKC½y. ¬x¦ RtUvEtbnßykarxUcxatnigrbYssñam[enA ticbMput nigRtUveKarBnigkarBarGayu Civitrbs;mnusSCati/ ¬K¦ RtUvEtFanafa CMnYynigf μaMBüa)alRtUv)anpþl;CUnGñkEdlmanrbYs nigGñkEdlrg plb:HBal;[)anelOnbMput }. siT§irbs;RbCaBlrdæCnCatiPaKtic CnCatiedImPaKticmansiT§imandIFøI manTwkdI nigFnFan. siT§ienHRtUv)anTTYlsÁal;

nigRtUv)ankarBaredaybTdæan nigc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCati. esckþIRbkassþIBIsiT§irbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic) anFana nUvsiT§imnusSmYycMnYnTak;Tgnwg

{ dInigFnFannanaEdlCnCatiedImPaKticman kan;kab; b¤)aneRbIR)as; b¤TTYl)antamRbéBNI }. esckþIRbkasenaHbBa¢ak;fa CnCatiedImPaKtic minRtUveKbeNþjecjBIdIFøIb¤EdndIrbs;Kat; eT. eKminRtUv[BYkKat;pøas;ecjBIdInigEdndITaMgenHeLIy 75 b¤minRtUvGnuvtþ karruHerIeTA lMenAzanfμ IedayK μankaryl;RBmc,as;las; nigedays μ ½KcitþCamuneLIy. esckþIRbkasenH k¾)anbBa¢ak;Edrfa karruHerIeTAkEnøgf μ IenaHGacnwgRbRBwtþeTA)an EtkñúgkrNIeRkayBIman karRBmeRBogGMBIsMNgsmrmünigyutþiFm’ nigebIsinCaGaceFVI)an edaymankareRCIserIs sMNg 76 . esckþIRbkasenHbBaØtþifa CnCatiedImPaKticmansiT§icUlrYmkñúgkarseRmccitþcMeBaH bBaðaEdlb:HBal;dl;siT§itamry³tMNagEdleRC IstaMgedayCnCatiedIm eTAtamnItiviFIrbs; Kat; k¾dUcCamansiT§ikñúgkarrkSanigGPivDÆFm μnuBaØCnCatiedImPaKtickñúgkarseRmccitþEdr 77 . rdæTaMgLayRtUvBieRKaHeyabl; nigshkareday suc©ritCamYyCnCatiedImPaKticEdlBak;B½n§

75

maRta10 76

dUcxagelI 77 maRta18

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

tamry³sßab½ntMNagCnCati edIm,ITTYl)annUvkaryl;RBmc,as;las;nigedaysμ ½RKcitþCamun munnwgGnum½tnigGnuvtþviFankarc,ab; nigviF ankarrdæ)alEdlGacb:HBal;dl;CnCatiedImPaK tic78 . esckþIRbkask¾)anbBa¢ak;bEnßmeTotfa krN Ikic©kñúgkarTTYlsÁal;nigkarBarsiT§idIFøI TwkdInigFnFanrbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic nigfardæ RtUvkMNt;nUvsiT§iEdlRtUvTTYl)annUvdMeNaH RsayRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBenAeBlEdlsiT§iTaMgenHRtUveKrMelaP 79 .

RbeTskm<úCa k¾CaPaKImYyénktikasBaØaGnþrC atisþIBIkarlubbM)at;ral;TRmg;énkarerIs eGIgCatisasn_enHEdr 80 . KN³km μaFikarsþIBIkarlubbM)at;ral;TRmg;énkarerIseGIgCatisasn_ bBa¢ak;fa karerIseGIgRbqaMgnwgCnCatedImP aKticmanEcgenAkñúgktikasBaØaGnþrCatisþIBI karlubbM)at;ral;TRmg;énkarerIseGIgCatisasn _ nigbBa¢ak;fa RtUveRbImeFüa)aysmRsbedIm,I RbqaMg RBmTaMglubbM)at;karerIseGIgEbbenaH 81 EdlrYmman karkarBarsiT§ikñúgkaryl;RBm c,as;las; nigedays μ½RKcitþCamun Tak;TgnwgkarseRmccitþEdlb:HBal;karGnuvtþsiT§irbs;Cn CatiedImPaKtic. KN³km μaFikarsþIBIkarlubbM)at;ral;TRmg;énkarerIseGIgCatisasn_)an bBa¢ak;fa

{ KN³kmμ aFikarGMBavnav CaBiessdl;rdæPaKI[TTYlsÁal;nigkarBarCnCatiedImPaK tic EdlmansiT§i Cam©as; GPivDÆ nigeRbI dI TwkdI nigFnFanrbs;shKmn_Kat; nig enAeBlEdldInigTwkdIEdlBYkKat;mantamRbéBNI b¤EdlBYkKat;taMgPUmizanrs;enA RtUveKdkhUtedayK μankaryl;RBmc,as;las;edaysμ ½RJKcitþCamun RtUvcat;viFankar RbKl;dI nigTwkdIeTARbCaBlrdæCnCatiPaKt icTaMgenaHvij. enAkñúgkrNIEdlGacelIk ElgcMeBaHehtuplCak;EsþgEdlGacGnuvtþ)an eBlenaHsiT§iTTYlsMNgCYsCulRtUv ykmkCMnYsvijedaysiT§iTTYlsMNgsmrmü yutþiFm’ nigTan;eBlevla. sMNgEbb

78

sUmemIlmaRt19 79

maRta26 cMNuc ¬3¦ maRta27 nig28. 80 RbeTskm<úCa)anpþl;sc©ab½nelIGnusBaØGnþrCatisþIBIkarbM)at;ral;TRmg;énkarerIseGIgCatisasn_ enAExvicäika qñaM1983. 81 Gnusasn_TUeTAelx23 ¬Gnusasn_rYm¦³ CnCatiedImPaKtic enAqñaM1997.

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

enaHd¾rabNaGaceFVI)anRtUvmanTRmg;CadIFøI nigTwikdI 82 . c,ab;PUmi)alqñaM2001énRbeTskm<úCa bBaØt þiGMBIkarkarBartampøÚvc,ab;ya:gTUlMTUlay

cMeBaHsiT§idIFøIrbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic. bNþashKmn_CnCatiedImPaKtic mansiT§iRsbc,ab;kñúg karTTYlnUvkm μsiT§ismUhPaB CadIlMenAzan dIksikmμ b¤dITukecalEdlCaEpñkénRbB½n§ksikm μ vilCuMtamRbéBNI EdlCakarqøúHbBa©aMgGMBIrebobCasmUhPaBEdlenAkñúgrebobenH RkumCnCati edImPaKticenAkñúgRbeTskm<úCa CaGñkerobcM 83 . maRta28énc,ab;enHEcgfa { K μanGaCJaFr NamYyeRkABIshKmn_ GacTTYl)ansiT§ielIGclnvtßúrbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic)aneLIy }.

bTbBaØtþimYycMnYnénc,ab;enH minGacGnuvtþ )aneT edayrg;caMkarecjGnuRkwtümYysþIBI karcuHbBa¢IdIsmUhPaBrbs;CnCanedImPaKtic Ed l)ancab;epþImtak;EtgCaesckþIRBagCaeRcIn qñaMmkehIy. dMeNIrkartak;EtgenHmandMeNIr kareTAmuxyWtNas; RBmTaMgkan;EtmankgVl; xøaMgeLIg²fa nwgmandICnCatiedImPaKticen Asl;kan;EtticEdlmanb½NÑkan;kab;enAeBlEdl Rkwtüc,ab;RtUv)anGnum½t nigenAeBlEdldMeNIrkarecjb½NÑkan;kab;dIFøIcab;epþIm 84 . enAeBl EdlesckþIRBagGnuRkwtüminTan;)anGnum½t maRta18nig23énc,ab;PUmi)al)anEcgnUvbT bBaØtþi GMBIsuvtßiPaBkan;kab;dIFøICabeNþaHGasnñ nigkarkarBarmin[epÞrdIFøIRbéBNIrbs;CnCati edImPaKtic. vaCaGMeBIxusc,ab; ebIsinCasm aCikNamñak;énshKmn_lk;dIrbs;RbCaBlrdæ CnCatiedImPaKtic. GVIEdlkMBugrg;caMEdrenaHK W c,ab;sRmab;RKb;RKgdMeNIrkarEdltamry³ enH shKmn_CnCatiedImPaKticGacnwgkøayCanItibuKÁl EdlCaviFankarmYyEdlCaEpñkén dMeNIrkarecjb½NÑkan;kab;CasmUhPaB. c,ab ;enHk¾RtUv)ancab;epþImCayUrNas;mkehIyEdr.

c,ab;sþIBIéRBeQI2002 nigGnuRkwtüsþIBIka rRKb;RKgéRBshKmn_ ¬qñaM2003¦ EcgGMBI bTbBaØtþi xøHEdlTak;TgnwglkçxNÐénkarRKb;RKg nigeRbIR)as;tMbn;éRBeQIedayRbCaBlrdæ CnCatiedImPaKtic EdlCaebHdUgsRmab;CIvPaBrs;enArbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic. b:uEnþ enAman

82

KNkmμ aFikasþIBIkarbM)at;ral;TRmg;énkarerIseGIgCatisasn_. sm½yRbCuMe lIkTI51 qñaM1997³ {Gnusasn_TUeTATI23/ CnCa tiedImPaKtic/ kfax½NÐ5. 83

c,ab;PUmi)alqñaM2001 CMBUk3 sþIBIkm μsiT§irbs;smUhPaB³ Gclvtßúrbs;shKmn_CnCatiPaKtic. 84 RkumsiT§iCnCatiPaKticGnþrCati sßanPaBrbs;CnCatiPaKticenAelIBiPBelak> TMB½r127.

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cMNucminc,as;cMeBaHkarbBa©ÚltMbn;éRBEdleRbIR )as;CaéRBvb,Fm’nigsasna dUcCadICMenO nigdI kb;exμac Tak;TgnwgdIEdlekIteLIgBIb½NÑkan;ka b;CasmUhPaBrbs;shKmn_CnCatiPaKtic.

4>6 karGnum½teKalkarN_mUldæannigeKalkarENnaMsþIBIkarbeNþjecj eday Ep¥kelIkarGPivDÆnigkartaMglMenAzanfμIeTAtambribTénRbeTskm<úCa muneBlRkumRbwkSasiT§imnusSBicarNaGMBIeK alkarN_mUldæan bNþajGgÁkareRkArdæa

Pi)alkm<úCanigGnþrCati/ kariyal½y]tþmsñgka rénGgÁkarshRbCaCatiTTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusS RbcaMenAkm<úCa nigsalaRkugPñMeBj)anÉkPaBKñae lIesckIþRtUvkarÉksardUcKñaGMBIeKalkarN_ nig )anKUsbBa¢ak;edayxøIfa { esckþIRbkasGMBIeKalkaN_sRmab;Rbtibtþiya:gRbesIrbMput kñúg karGPivDÆRbCaBlrdæRkIRkenAkm<úCaKW³ elIkkMBs;viFIsa®sþGPivDÆTIRkugedayyksiT§imnusSCa mUldæan }. esckþIRbkasenHRtUv)anRbkas[eRbI R)as;enAkñúg»kasTivalMenAzanBiPBelak enAéf¶TI4 Extula qñaM2004 nigRtUv)andak;CUneTARksYgmhaépÞedIm,IsuMGnum½t 85 . salaRkug PñMeBj eday)ancuHhtßelxaEdlenAmanRbsiT§PaBenAeLIyenaH)ansnüafa nwgGnuvtþ karbeNþjecjedaybgçM EtkñúgkrNIEdlCaCeRmIscu geRkaykñúgkarbBaÄb;vivaTdIFøI nigkñúgkar TUTat;sMNgsmrmünigyutþiFm’. GgÁkarelIkElgeT asGnþrCati min)andwgfa etIRksYgmhaépÞ )anGnum½t b¤faeKalkarN_TaMgenaHkMBugRtUv)a npSBVpSay nigRbtibtþienAtamEpñkTTYlbnÞúk lMenAzanrbs;salaRkugPñMeBj b¤enAfñak;Catiya:gNaenaHeT.

enAeBlEdleyIgsresrr)aykarN_enH GnuRkwtümYysþIBI { karruHerInigtaMglMenAzanf μI edaybgçMsMrab;KeRmagGPivDÆn_ 86 } kMBugRtUv)anerobcMtak;EtgCaesckþIRBag mYyEdlKaMRT edayFanaKarGPivDÆn_GasuI edaymaneKaln eya)ayEdleKsgÇwmfa nwgeqøIytbeTAtam eKalneya)ayrbs;FnaKaGPivDÆn_GasuI. bNþaeKalneya)ayTaMgenHnwgdMeNIr karedayCYy elIkkMBs;karkarBaredayRsbc,ab;RbqaMgnwgk arbeNþjecjEdlekIteLIgeday sarKeRmag GPivDÆn_nanaEdltamCak;Esþgb c©úb,nñenHkarkarBarEbbenHK μaneT. eTaHCaya:genHkþIman

85

Éksarelx E/CN.4/2005/111 / kfax½NÐ50. 86

esckþIRBagGnuRkwtü BIEx]sPaqñaM2007 mancMNge CIgfa {karedaHRsayplb:HBal;esdækic©-sgÁmedaysar KeRmagGPivDÆn_}.

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kgVl;CaeRcInenAkñúgcMeNamGgÁkarsgÁmsuIvilEx μr Edl)anelIkeLIgfa esckþIRBagc,ab; EdlkMBugmanRbsiT§PaBenHnwgpþl;siT§iRsbc, ab;[mankarbeNþjRbCaBlrdæedaybgçM enAkñúg sßanPaBmYycMnYn kñúgxN³EdlRbKl;GMNacEdlK μankarRKb;RKgCak;EsþgeTAPñak;garRbtibtþi edIm,IseRmcfa etIKeRmagGPivDÆn_GVIxøHEdlRtUvBicarNafa CaRbeyaCn_saFarN³. GgÁkar eRkArdæaPi)alkñúgRsukmYycMnYn k¾)anraykarN _mkGgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCati GMBIbNþa bBaðaepSg²eTotEdlmanenAkñúgesckþIRBagenHEdr EdlbBaðaTaMgenaHmandUcCa K μanynþkar sRmab;TTYlBakübNþwgBIRbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal; rhUtdl;eRkayeBlbeNþjecj. vahak;dUcCabgðajfa eKmin)anEp¥kelIeKalka rN_mUldæanrbs;GñkraykarN_BiessénGgÁkar shRbCaCatisRmab;tak;EtgesckþIRBagenHeT.

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5> krNIénkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM 5>1 shKmn_sMbukcab³ {BYkeKykeyIg mkTmøak;ecalenATIenH} enAEx]sPa nigExmifunaqñaM2006 manRbCaBlrdæCag1500RKYsarRtUvbeNþjecj

edaybgçMecjBIshKmn_sMbukcab EdlCashKmn_m anlMenAzanminerobrytaMgBIedImTsvtSr_ TI90 enAtamRcaMgTenø)asak;. enAkñúgGMLúgeBlbeNþjecjenaH manRbCaBlrdæRkIRkrab;ry nak;K μanTICRmkrs;enAeT87 CaBiessRbCaBlrdæEdlCYlpÞHeK en AkñúgtMbn;lMenAzanminerobry enH.

TItaMgfμ IenAPUmiGNþ Úg xVHesvakmμCamUldæanRKb;Ebby:ag.

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muneBlGnuvtþkarbeNþjecj RbCaBlrdæenAshKmn_sMbukcab min)anTTYldMNwglM GitGMBIEpnkarruHerInigtaMglMenAzanf μ IeT ehIysMeNIeTAsalaRkugBIGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)aledIm,I

87 GñkCMnajkarénGgÁkarshRbCaCati GMBavnav[eKarB siT§imnusSdl;RbCaBlrdæenAshKmn_)asak; Rkug PñMeBj RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa/ tMNagBiessénGKÁelxaFikarénGgÁkarshRbCaCatiGMBIRkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS nig GñkraykarN_BiesssþIBIlMenAzansmrmüEdlCaEpñk mYyénsiT§imankRmitCIvPaBrs;enAsmrmü elak Miloon Kothari éf¶TI30Ex]sPaBqñaM2006. [http://cambodia.ohchr.org/Documents/Statements%20and%20Speeches/English/300.pdf]

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suMBieRKaHeyabl; nigBiPakSaGMBIkarbeNþjnigk arruHerIlMenAzanenaHRtUvbdiesF rIÉkarBüa yamrbs;GgÁkareRkArdæaPi)alTaMgenaHedIm,IcUleTACYbRbCaBlrdæmYycMnYn Edlrgplb:HBal; BitR)akdk¾RtUvbdiesFEdr 88 . GgÁkarsiT§imnusSCaeRcInEdltamdanRBwtþikarN_EdlbNþal [mankarbeNþjecjedaybgçMenaH)anR)ab;GgÁ karelIkElgeTasGnþrCatifa TaMgPsþútag bBa¢ak;GMBIsiT§ikan;kab; TaMgPsþútagGMBIdIka[ruHerIlMenAzanecjk¾min)an[RbCaBlrdædwgEdr EdlkñúgcMeNamRbCaBlrdæTaMgenaH manRbCaBlr dæCaeRcIn)anmkrs;enAelIdIenHCaeRcInqñaM mkehIy ehIyeKmin)anCUndMNwgGMBIeKalkarN_CamUldæanNamYysRmab;karbþwgCMTas;GMBI dIkaruHerIenHeLIy 89 .

PUmisMbukcab EdleKehAfa PUmi14EdrenaH RtUveKykeTA[Rkumh‘unGclnvtßúÉkCn mYy Edltamr)aykarN_)an[dwgfa RtUveKpþl;[nUvb½NÑkm μsiT§iRsbc,ab;Cam©as;dIenaH taMgBI TsvtSr_TI90.

cab;taMgBImankarecaTRbkan;fa TTYl)annUvb½NÑkm μsiT§ienaHmk Rkumh‘unenHmin)aneRbI vaeT nigmankartaMglMenAzanminerobrykan;EteRcIneLIg². eKmin)anpSBVpSayCasaFarN³ b¤ pSBVpSayeTAtMNagshKmn_GMBIEpnkarerobcMdIeLIgvijrbs;Rkumh‘un muneBlbeNþjecj enaHeT pÞúyeTAvij Ék]tþm Ekb Cutima GPi) alRkugPñMeBj)anbBa¢ak;fa TICRmkrbs;shKmn_ { eFVI[xUcesaP½NPaBRkug } 90 . rhUtmkdl;eBlenH eKenAEtmindwgGMBIEpnkarGPivDÆn_enaH eT.

karBieRKaHeyabl;GMBIlMenAzanrvagsalaRkug GaCJaFr nigRbCaBlrdæmYycMnYnenaH minRtUvKña nigmin)ankareT eRkayBItMNagmYycMnYnénshKmn_)anesñIsuM[manesvakm μcaM)ac;²

88 shKmn_Tenø)asak;³ krNIsikSaGMBIyuT§sa®sþkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk nigyuT§sa®sþctuekaN enARkugPñMeBj/ karXøaMemIlkarGPivDÆenAkm<úCa qñaMTI2 elx2 evTi kaGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al PñMeBj ExsIhaqñaM2006. 89

mCÄmNÐlGb;rMc,ab;sRmab;shKmn_ nigGgÁkarCMnYyEpñkc,ab;énkm<úCa EdlCatMNagkarBartampøÚv,c,ab;nUv vivaTdIFøIenAshKmn_Tenø)asak;/ esckþIEføgsarB½t’manedaymCÄmNÐlGb;rMc ,ab;sRmab;shKmn_ éf¶TI16Exmifuna qñaM2006. esckþIEføgsarB½t’manenHmanenAkñúg http://www.clec.org.kh/hotnews.asp?qNID=1. [ebIkemIlcugeRkay éf¶TI28ExmkraqñaM2008 ] 90

GñkPUmienATenøsak;nwgRtUvbeNþjecjenAs)aþh_eRkay/ GtßbTrbs; Dw EXmbUDa edlI éf¶TI5 Exmifuna qñaM2006.

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enAnwgkEnøgf μ ICaeRscmunnwgruHerIeTA EdlenAeBlenaHEdrmanRbCaBlrdæCaeRcIn)anCMTas;nwg sMeNITItaMgf μ IEdlBYkKat;yl;eXIjfa sßitenAq¶ayeB kBITIRkug nigminGacFanadl;karRbkb rbrciBa©wmCIvit)aneT. taMgBIeBlenaHmk K μankarRbwgERbgf μ IkñúgkarBieRKaHeyalbl;eLIgvij CamYytMNagRbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;enaHeT.

eTaHCaya:genHkþI salaRkugPñMeBj nigRkumRKYsarCam©as;pÞH)anRBmeRBogelIdICafñÚr EdlRkumh‘unpþl;CUnm©as;lMenAzanmYycMnYn en ARtBaMgRksaMg EdlsßitenARbEhl20K>m> BIPñMeBj. GaCJaFrxkxanmin)anFana )annUvehdæarcnasm<½n§ nigesvakmμ caM)ac;² dUcCa TwkbriePaK Gnam½y nigGKÁisnI enATItaMglMenAzanf μ IenaHeLIy.

salaRkugPñMeBj)anCMTas;edaycMhminRBmTTYlxusRtUv cMeBaHsßanPaBrbs;GñkCYl pÞHeKrab;Ban;Gñk EdleKmin)anBieRKaHeyabl;CamYyBYkKat;eLIy. pÞúyeTAvij RkumRKYsar EdlCYlpÞHeKTaMgenaHRtUv TukecaledayK μankarKitKUrGs;ry³eBlCaeRcIns)aþh_. eqøIynwg sMNYrrbs;viTüúeGb‘ÍsuIGU®sþalI (ABC Radio Australia) EdlsYrfa etIBYkKat;eTArs;enATINa eRkayBIkarbeNþjecj. eBlenaHÉk]tþmEkb Cutima GPi)alRkugPñMeBj)anBnül;fa³ { eyIg mindwgeT eRBaHRbCaBlrdæ TaMgenaHCYlpÞHeKenA } 91 .

dMNak;dMbUgénkarbeNþjecjenaH)ancab;epþImenAéf¶TI3 Ex]sPa qñaM2006 EdlenA eBlenaH RkumnKr)al/ Rkumkm μkrruHerIvaykMeTc/ Rkumm®nþImUldæan nigRkumRKYsarCam©as;lMenA zan )ancab;epþImruHerIlMenAzanEdleBlenaHR kumRKYsarEdlCam©as;pÞHRtUveKKMramkMEhg. man RbCaBlrdæxøH)anbdiesFminRBmerIecj edayBnül;ehtuplfa dItaMglMenAzanf μ IenaHK μan GKÁisnI nigK μanTwkeRbIR)as;eT. GñkCYlpÞHeKEdleKeFVI[BYkKat;K μanCRmkrs;enAk¾)anRbqaMg nwgkarruHerIlMenAzanenaHEdr.

RbCaBlrdæEdlRtUveKbeNþjecjCaeRcInnak; )anR)ab;GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCati fa kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuF)aneRbIkmøaMgkan;EteRcIneLIg²enAkñúgGMLúgeBlénkarbeNþjecj kñúgry³eBlya:gyUrkñúgExenaH. enAeBlenaH karKMramkMEhg nigkaryayIrMxan k¾maneRcIn Nas;Edr rIÉrbs;rbrpÞal;xøÜnk¾RtUvkMeTcecalEdr.

91 RbeTskm<úCa³ RKYsarRkIRkRtUvbeNþjecjBItMbn;sMNg;rexkrxakkñúgRkug/ éf¶TI4 Ex]sPa qñaM2006.

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GñkEdlFøab;CYlpÞHeKenA EdlK μanpÞHrs;enAenaH )anrs;enAtamtg; nigCRmkbeNþaH GasnñenATIenaH taMgBIeBlcab;epþImruHerIrhUtd l;cb; enAkñúgExénedImrdUvvsSa. GgÁkareRkA rdæaPi)alnanaRbQmnwg karraraMgmin[pþl;CM nYymnusSFm’eTARbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal; EdlsßanPaBénkarrs;enArbs;BYkKat;kan;Etdunda beTA²enaHeLIy. RkumGaCJaFr RKb;RKgRck cUleTAtMbn;EdlB½T§rbgCitenaH ehIyenAyamCaRbcaMenATIenaH. enAéf¶TI31 Ex]sPa kub,km μmYy)anpúÞHeLIgeRkayBImankarecaTRbkan;fa Gñkyam)aneFVI[manrbYsdl;kumar nig ®sþImanépÞeBaH. tamr)aykarN_)an[dwgfa RkumGñkPUmiEdleBareBjedaykMhwgCaeRcInnak; )anEhkrbg dutpÞHrbs;emPUmirg nig)anbMpøajTIsñak;karPUmiGs; 92 . kñúgry³eBlb:unμanéf¶én kub,km μenaH RkumnKr)al)ancab;xøÜnRbCaBlrdæcMnYn9nak;.

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dUckMNt;cMNaMxagelI. . 93 maRta52énc,ab;G‘untak;.

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

tMNagCnrgeRKaH)an[dwgfa enAéf¶TI30Ex vicäika qñaM2006 BYkKat;RtUvkat;eTasBIbTbMpøaj RTBüsm,tþi edayEp¥kelIcemøIyrbs;sakS Imñak;Edlmin)anbgðajxøÜnenAÉtulakar 94 . bursTaMg enaHRtUvkat;eTas [Cab;Bn§naKarry ³eBlBIrqñaM enABn§naKaréRBsénRkugPñMeBj.

GñkRsI RsI muM nigkUnrbs;Kat;cMnYnbInak; k¾sßitenAkñúgcMeNamRbCaBlrdærab;Ban;nak; EdlKμanpÞHsEm,grs;enAedaysarkarbeNþjecjedaybgçMenAéf¶TI6 ExmifunaenaHEdr. enA kñúgRbtibtþikar munéf¶rHmYyenaH RkumnKr)a lRbqaMgRkumkub,kr nigkgraCGavuFhtßEdl Rbdab;edayGavuFFunF¶n; ¬GavuFEvg¦ cMnYnBI6 00eTA700nak;)anh‘¿B½T§biTRcktMbn;enH )an beNþjbuKÁliksiT§imnusSshRbCaCati/ GgÁkare RkArdæaPi)al nigGñkykB½t’manEdleTABinitü tamdansßanPaB min[enABinitüsßanPaBenaHeLIy / )anlub nigbMpøajrUbftEdlft)anenAkñúg ma:suInft nig)anraraMgmin[ftsemøgeLIy. G ñkRsI RsI muM )anR)ab;GgÁkarelIkElgeTas GnþrCatifa³

{ enAéf¶beNþjecjenaH ´)at;bg;rbs;rbr RTBüsm,tþi dUcCa semøókbMBak; cank,an nigkenÞl. RkumnKr)alnigkgraCGavuFhtß mkdl;TaMgRkum². ´)aneXIjBYkeK cab;jwúgkUn² rbs;´ nig)anBüayam[BYkeKeKcecj][q¶ay. BYkeK)ancUlmkedayERskfa {ruHpÞHeTA²¡ ehIycakecjeTA¡} ´)anGgVrBYkeK kuM[vay´. R´BmruHerIpÞH´ehIy. ehIyeRkaymk eKk¾yk´mk Tmøak;ecalenATIenH} Etmþg.

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GñkRsI RsI muM nigkUnrbs;Kat;bInak;)anmk rs;enAelI valERslicTwk enAkñúgxNÐdegáa Edlmancm¶ayBITIenH ¬kEnøgfμ I¦ eTAkNþalRkugPñMeBjRbEhl20K>m>. mYyry³eRkaymk eK)anRbKl;dI[BYkKat;mYyLÚt_EdlmanTMhM 4 x 6 Em:Rt enAPUmiGNþÚgEdlCaTItaMgf μI sRmab;GñkCYlpÞHeKenAPUmi14 mktaMglMenAzanfμ IenATIenH. GñkRsIeCOfa eK)ansnüaeFVIb½NÑ

94

mnusSbInak;RtUvkat;eTasBIbTjúHjg;kub,km μenAshKmn_Tenø)asak;/ GtßbTrbs; kaEst Dw EXmbUDa edlI éf¶TI1 ExFñÚ qñaM2007.

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

bøg;dICUnRKYsarrbs;Kat; eRkayBIKat;)anrs;enA ry³eBlR)aMqñaMelIdIEdleK)anpþl;[Kat;rs;enA enH. mYyqñaMeRkayBIkarbeNþjecjedaybgçMenaH GñkRsI RsI muM nigkUn²rbs;Kat; enAEtrs; enATIenaH kñúgCRmkRbk;tg;EdlFøaylicTwkdEdl.

{ enAeBlEdleK[eyIgmkTIenH eK)anniyay fa {enAeBlEdlGñkmkdl;TIenaHPøam/ eKnwgvas;dI[GñkPøam}. b:uEnþ GVIEdleKniyayenaHminBiteT. eKmin)anpþl;dI[eyIg eT. eyIgrs;enAhalePøógnigBüúHpÁr}.

GñkRsIminRKan;Et)at;bg;lMenAzan nigrbs;r breRbIR)as;enaHeT b:uEnþEfmTaMg)at;bg; R)ak;cMNUleTotpg.

GñkRsI RsI muM )anniyayR)ab; GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatifa { eBleyIgrs;enAÉ PñMeBj kUnRbus´ nig´edIrerIsrbs;cas;²EdleKe)aHecal¬eGdcay¦ }. {eyIgGacrk )anR)ak;BI3000erol eTA5000erol [RbEhl0/75 eTA 1/25 duløa ] kñúgmYyéf¶}. enAPUmiGNþÚg GñkRsIRbQmnwg]bs½KÁya:gFM kñúgkarrkR)ak;[)anRKb;RKan;edIm,IFana

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\LÚvenHminGacbnþkarsikSa)aneT taMgBIeBlenaHmk eRBaHK μansMbuRtkMeNItEdlCalkçxNÐ sRmab;cuHeQ μaHcUleronenAsalardæEdlenACitenaH.

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snþisuxCag120nak; mannKr)al/ kgraCGavuF htß nigtamkarraykarN_[dwgfa manRkum esøókBak;ÉksNæanK μanGtþsBaØaNmYyRkumeTot)anmkdl;PUmienH. RkumkgRbdab;GavuFTaMg enaHmanGmedaykm μkrvaykMeTcCag50nak;mkCamYypg 95 .

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eTasGnþrCatiTTYl)anBIbuKÁlikGgÁkarsiT§imnusSeFVIkarenATIenaH )anraykarN_ya:glMGitnUv rebobEdlnKr)al)aj;rHeTAelIGakasenAeBlEd lkgRbdab;GavuFTaMgenHcUlkñúgPUmi. enA eBlRbCaBlrdæenAshKmn_BüayamTb;Tl; RBmTaMgKb;dMf μ RkumkmøaMgRbdab;GavuF)aj; rHkan;EtxøaMg nigenAeBlTnÞwmKñaenaHEdr lMenAzanrbs;GñkPUmiRtUvdut nigQUskMeTc. enAkñúgsßanPaBd¾RcbUkRcbl;enaH eFVI[GñkPUmie sÞIrEtTaMgGs;minRtUv)aneKGnuBaØat b¤minGac ykrbs;rbr eRbIR)as;ecjBIpÞH)aneLIy.

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95

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smaKmsiT§imnusSkm<úCa EdlCabNþaj énGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)albMeBjebsskm μEpñksiT§i mnusS)an[dwgfa pÞHcMnYn218xñgRtUvdutkMe Tc b¤vaykMeTc ehIyRbCaBlrdæPUmik,al s<an)at;bg;pÞHsEm,gnigrbs;rbrrbs;Kat;K μansl; 96 .

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RbEhlCaR)aMbIqñaMmun enAqñaM1997 muneBlbBa©b;s®gÁamsuIvil rvagEx μrRkhmnigkg

kmøaMgrbs;rdæaPi)al GaCJaFrRsuk)ansuM[RKYs arCaeRcInmkrs;enAPUmik,als<an EdlCatMbn; sm,ÚreTAedaymIn CatMbn;éRB RBmTaMgK μanGñkRsukrs;enAeLIy. enAeBlenaH tMbn;enHK μan suvtßiPaBeT edaysarPUmienHsßitenACittMbn;Edlkan;kab;edayExμ rRkhm nigCasmrPUmi RBm TaMgedaysartMbn;enHsm,ÚredaymInpg.

GñkPUmi EdlmanGñkxøHvilmkBICMrMuCnePosxøÜnenACab;RbeTséf nigGñkepSgeTotCa eyaFinrMsaypgenaH )annaMKñasm¥atmIn maneBlxøHb:HBal;mInbNþal[pÞúH eFVI[søab;k¾man rbYsk¾man. eRkay²mkeTot GaCJaFrmUldæan)anerobcMEckdI nigecjÉksarCaeRcIn[ shKmn_EdlÉksarTaMgenaHmandUcCa elxpÞHéndILÚt_nImYy².

edaysarkarebIkRckRBMEdnCapøÚvkar cUle TARbeTséf enAqñaM1998 eRkayBIcb; s®gÁamenaH e)a:yEb:t)ankøayCaTIRkugmYyenAtamRBMEdnmanmnusSya:geRcIn. eRkaymkman 96

dUcKñanwgkMNt;cMNaMxagelI.

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kasuINUmYyedaymanmnusSeRcInkuHkr ehIyenAkñúgtMbn;EdlCab;nwgkasuINUenAkñúgPUmik,al s<an manTIlanvaykUneKalnigsNæaKarCaeRcInsRmab;pÁt;pÁg;ePJóvmkBIRbeTséf )anrIkdUc pSiteFVI[dIenATIenHeLIgéføya:gx<s;.

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enAqñaM1998 manbursmñak; EdlBImun GñkPUmiBuMFøab;sÁal; tamesckþIraykarN_[dwgfa

)aneLIgkan;tMENgCaemPUmiCapøÚvkar. kñúgry³eBlEtmYyqñaM emPUmienH)andak;BakübNþwg edayEp¥kelIb½NÑkm μsiT§iEdltamkarecaTRbkan;fa K μansuBlPaBenaH eTAtulakarextþbnÞay manC½y GHGagfa dICag51000Em:RtRkLa EdleK)anEckCUnRbCaBlrdæenaHfa Cakm μsiT§i rbs;Kat; RBmTaMgGHGagfa GñkPUmiTaM gGs;Ca {GñktaMglMenAzanGnaFibetyü K μanc,ab; Tmøab;}. enAéf¶TI18Exvicäika qñaM1999 tulakar)anecjsalRkmseRmc[ {emPUmi} enaHQñH kþI eRkayBI)anebIksvnakarmYyEdltulakarmin)an sþáab;sakSINamñak; kñúgnamshKmn_ b¤min )anGnuBaØat[mantMNagRsbc,ab;karBarGñkPUmieLIy 97 . tulakar)anpþl;b½NÑbøg;dI eTAelak emPUmienaHRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB. eTaHbICamanbNþwgGMBIPaBminRbRktICaeRcInenAtulakarfñak; 97

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44 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

extþk¾eday k¾sala]T§rN_enAEtseRmcKaMRT salRkmenaH enAkñúgExkumÖ³qñaM2001dEdl 98 . fVIebIK μankarBieRKaHeyabl;GMBIkarruHerIlMenAzanCamYyGñkPUmik¾eday k¾manesckþI

raykarN_fa mankarb:unb:gbeNþjecjcMnYnbIelIk kñúgcenøaHeBlsalRkmrbs;sala]T§rN_ nigkarbeNþjecjedaybgçMelIkcugeRkayenAExmInaqñaM2005 99 . shKmn_k,als<anGHGag fa eKmin)anCUndMNwgCapøÚvkarfa BYkKat;RtUvruHerIlMenAzanecjenaHeT.

eRkayBIkarbeNþjecjenaHmk RkumRKYsarC aeRcIn)ansg;CRmkrs;enAbeNþaHGasnñ enAEk,rPUmid¾exÞcxÞaMenaH edaybdiesFminRB mTTYlsMeNI rbs;GaCJaFrmUldæanEdl[GñkPUmi eTArs;enATItaMgfμ IEdlsßitenAcm¶ayCaeRcInKILÚEm:RtBIPUmienaHeLIy. BYkKat;)anBnül;ehtu plfa TItaMgenaHsßitenAq¶ayBIRckTVarRBMEdneBk naM[BYkKat;)at;bg;rbrciBa©wmCIvit. eTaHbICa RbQmnwgeRKaHfñak;énkarbeNþjecjeTot k¾eday k¾ry³eBlRbEhlmYyExeRkaymk Gñk PUmiEdlRtUveKbeNþjecjenaH )anerImkrs;enAkñ úgPUmivij edaysg;lMenAzanxUcxatenaHeLIg vij 100.

bnÞab;BIkarbeNþjecjEdlbgá[manmnusSsø ab;enaHmk Ék]tþm Gan s‘um GPi)al rgextþbnÞaymanC½y)anmanRbsasn_fa { eyIgnwgcuHesuIbGegátEfmeTot edIm,IEsVgrk[ eXIjR)akdfa etImanGVIxøHEdl)anekIteLIg} 101 ehIyb:unμanéf¶eRkaymk GaCJaFr)anbegáIt KN³km μkar RsavRCavGnþrRksYgedIm,IcuHesIubGegátbuBVehtuénGMeBIhigSaEdl)anekIteLIg enaH. KN³km μkarenH)anrkeXIjm®nþIEdlTTYlxusRtUvkñúgkarbeNþjecjenH RBmTaMg)an erobcMkgkmøaMgmYycMnYn dak;BRgayenATIenaH EdlehAfa Rkum124. CabnþbnÞab;mkeTot nKr)alRsukBIrrUbRtUv)anXat;xøÜnCabeNþaHGasnñ 102.

98

r)aykarN_rbs;GñkraykarN_Biesss þIBIsiT§imanlMenAzansmrmü/ eday Miloon Kothari, ebsskmμenA RBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa/ E/CN.4/2006/41/Add.3, éf¶TI21ExmInaqñaM2006. 99

bBaðadIFøIenAtMbn;e)a:yEb:t/ evTikaGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)alsþIBIkm<úCa qñaM2005. 100

éfødIeLIgx<s;/ KN³km μaFikarRbRBwtþikm μénGgÁkarsmaKmsiT§i mnusSkm<úCa qñaM2005. 101

kgnKr)al)aj;Rkumtva:enAe)a:yEb:t5nak;/ GtßbTrbs;kaEst Dw EXmbUDa edlI cuHpSayéf¶TI22 ExmIna qñaM2005. 102

éfødIeLIgx<s;/ KN³km μaFikarRbRBwtþikm μénGgÁkarsmaKmsiT§i mnusSkm<úCa qñaM2005.

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elakehg sMrin RbFankitþiysénKN³bkSRbCaCnkm<úCaEdlkMBugkan;GMNac k¾)an snüapþl;GMeNaymnusSFm’Edr. elak)anR)ab;GñkykB½t’manenARkugPñMeBjfa³

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TnÞwmnwgenaH RksYgyutþiFm’ )anbBa¢ÚnbNþwgRBh μTNÐRbqaMgnwgkgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuF EdleK)anbþwgeTAtulakarextþbnÞaymanC½yenaH eTAextþ)at;dMbg. tamRbPBrbs;emFavI mñak;énGgÁkarsiT§imnusSEdl)antamdanerOgkþIenH)an[dwgfa erOgenHekIteLIgedaysarmankar cUlrYmrbs;buKÁliktulakarextþbnÞaymanC½y kñúgvivaTdIFøI nigkarbeNþjecjenH. eRkayBI karcuHRsavRCav mankgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuFya:geRcInrhUtdl;66nak; nigmanGñkPUmicMnYn52nak; rYmTaMgRbCaBlrdæsøab;bYnnak;enaHpg RtUvCab;bTecaTRbkan;BIbTeFVIXat nigkarvaytb;bNþal[ manrbYs. kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuFR)aMrUbRtUvbBa¢ÚneTAmnÞIrXuMXaMg 104 .

rhUtmkdl;ExsIha tulakar)andkkarecaTRbkan;CnsgS½y 105 . elak nIl Nun EdlCa ecARkmesuIbGegát)anR)ab;sarB½t’manfa K μanPsþútagRKb;RKan;sRmab;kat;eTaseT. r)aykarN_ rbs;KN³km μkarRsavRCavminEdlRtUv)anepJIeTAtulakarextþ)at;tMbgeLIy. RbCaBlrdæeRcIn RKYsar)anbþwg]T§rN_CMTas;nwgsalRkmenaH 106 . buKÁlikGgÁkarsiT§imnusSRbcaMenAextþ)at;tMbg)an R)ab; GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatifa TaMgbuKÁlikénG gÁkarsiT§imnusS nigGñkPUmixkcitþdUcKñacMeBaH salRkmenaH.

{ ebIsinCa [tulakar] cg;rk eKBitCarkeXIjCnEdl)aj;rHenaHehIy} . erOgkþIenaHkMBugrg;caMenAÉsala]T§rN_enAeLIy. tamesckþIraykarN_fa mkdl;Bak;kNþalEx]sPa qñaM2006 GaCJaFrextþ )an

103

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éfødIeLIgx<s;/ KN³km μaFikarRbRBwtþikm μénGgÁkarsmaKmsiT§i mnusSkm<úCa qñaM2005. 105

r)aykarN_rbs;GñkraykarN_Biesss þIBIsiT§imanlMenAzansmrmü eday Miloon Kothari, ÉksarbEnßm³ ebsskm μenARbeTskm<úCa/ elx³ E/CN.4/2006/41/Add.3/ éf¶TI21Exmifuna qñaM2006. 106 éfødIeLIgx<s;/ KN³km μaFikarRbRBwtþikm μénGgÁkarsmaKmsiT§imnusSkm<úCa qñaM2005.

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cat;kartamkarENnaMrbs;naykrdæm®nþI h‘un Esn enaH )ansRmbsRmYlrkdMeNaHRsay eRkARbB½n§tulakar rvagRkumRKYsarEdlRtUveKbeNþjecj nigCamYyemPUmi. RkumRKYsar RbCaBlrdæTTYl)annUvkm μsiT§idIcMnYn4hikta kñúgTMhMdI5hikta EdlkñúgmYyLÚt_manTMhM 8 x 20Em:Rt éndILÚt_TMhMdI 10 x 20 Em:Rt EdlRbCaBlrdæmantaMgBIedImmk. cab;taMg BIeBlenaHmkBuMmanB¤esckþIraykarN_mkfa manbBaðaeToteLIy.

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5>3 sgáat;mitþPaB4³ eFVI[RbCaBlrdæRkIRkK μanpÞHsEm,grs;enA { ´)at;bg;lMenAzan ERscMkar nigrbs;rbreRbIR)as;dUcCa semøókbMBak;nigcank,an. pÞHTaMgGs;RtUvdut nigkMeTcedayeRKOgcRk ¬Rtak;T½rCIknigQUs¦. BYkeKyks½gásI nigkþarl¥²TukCarbs;xøÜn. sUm,IEtBagTwkk¾eKykeTAEdr EfmTaMgcab;ykman;-Ta rbs;eyIgeTotpg. BImun BYkeKminEdlmkedjeyIgEbbenHeLIy} . enAéf¶TI20Exemsa qñaM2007 GñkRsI su PaB Gayu43qñaM nigsmaCikkñúgRKYsar

107

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TaMgR)aMmYynak;rbs;GñkRsI k¾sßitenAkñúgcMeNamRbCaBlrdæ100RKYsarEdlRtUveKbeNþjecj edaybgçMBIPUmimitþPaB4 EdlsßitenAtameqñrsumuRT 108 CayRkugRBHsIhnuenaHEdr. eKeFVI[ BYkKat;TaMgGs;K μanpÞHsEm,grs;enAeT.

enAGMLúgBak;kNþalTsvtSr_TI80 RbCaBlrdæ17RKYsar)anpøas;mkrs;enAtMbn;enH. BYkKat;bnþrs;enATIenH rhUtmkdl;sBVéf¶enH edayrYmmandILÚt_sRmab;Rbkbrbrksikm μ. edaysarsac;jatipøas;mkrs;enATIenH nigedays arkUnecArbs;RbCaBlrdæmanRKYsarerog²xøÜn dUecñHdIenATIenHRtUvEckCadILÚt_tUc².

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GñkPUmi 13 nak;RtUv)ancab;xøÜnbnÞab;BIkarbeNþjecj.

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108

eKk¾ehAPUmienHfa PUmis<aneqH EdlbkeTACaPasGg;eKøsfa Burning Bridge.

48 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

fVIebIya:gdUecñHk¾eday k¾BakübNþwgenaHC abuBVehtuEdlnaM[GaCJaFrx½NÐ ecjlixit CUndMNwgmYy enAéf¶TI26Extula qñaM2006 [R bCaBlrdæruHerIlMenAzanecj edIm,I[Pñak;gar Gnuvtþc,ab;nigeyaFacuHGnuvtþ edayK μanqøgkat;karBinitütamnItiviFItulakareLIy. eKmin)an pþl;»kas[GñkPUmirgeRKaHbþwgCMTas;esckþIseR mccitþenaHeLIy. esckþICUndMNwgGMBI kar beNþjecjenaHGHGagfa dIPUmiCadIsaFarN³rbs;rdæ/ dIÉkCnrbs;rdæ nigCadIÉkCn 109 rbs; edImbNþwg. edaymin)anBieRKaHeyabl;GVIbnþi cesaHenaH GaCJaFrmUldæan)anelIksMeNI pþl;CUnRbCaBlrdæcMnYn17RKYsarEdlmktaMglMen Azanrs;enAdMbUgenATsvtSr_TI80 nUvR)ak; 500duløaGaemrik b¤karruHerIeTAtaMglMenAzanf μIenAtMbn;mYyEdlsßitenAya:gq¶ayBIsmuRTedIm,I [BYkKat;bnþRbkbrbrciBa©wmCIvitedaykarensaT. GñkPUmi)anRcanecalsMeNIpþl;CUnTaMgBIr enaH.

BIrs)aþh_eRkaymk RbCaBlrdæ53RKYsar)andak;BakübNþwgeTAKN³km μaFikarRBwT§ sPaTTYlbnÞúkEpñksiT§imnusS edaykñúgBakübNþwgenaHbBa¢ak;fa BYkKat;RtUveKKMrambeNþj ecjedaybgçMBIdIEdlCakm μsiT§iRsbc,ab;rbs;BYkKat;. enAkñúgcMNat;karxusFm μtamYy KN³ km μaFikarenH)anCUndMNwgGMBIBakübNþwgenHeTAGP i)alRkugRBHsIhnu nigfa xøÜnnwgcuHesuIb Gegát. karcuHesIubGegátenaH)ansnñidæanfa erOgkþIenaHCa erOgkþIrdæb,evNIEdlRtUvedaHRsay edaytulkar.

enAéf¶TI19ExmkraqñaM2007 shKmn_enH) anTTYlesckþICUndMNwgGMBIkarbeNþjenH CaelIkTIBIr EdlesckþICUndMNwgelIkenHcuHhtßelxaedayelakGPi)alRkug say hak; Edl elak)anTukeBlEtBIrs)aþh_b:ueNÑaHedIm,I[RbC aBlrdæcakecjBIlMenAzan. esckþICUndMNwg enH k¾KμanesckþIseRmcrbs;tulkar dUcesckþICUndMNwgmunEdr 110.

taMgBIRBwkRBlwmenAéf¶beNþjecjenaH mankgnKr)alCaeRcInEdlRbdab;eday 109

enAkñúgPaBCam©as;km μsiT§idIFøIsaFarN³ CMBUk2énc,ab;PUmi)alqñaM2001 Ecgya:gc,as; rvagdIkm μsiT§iÉkCn rbs;rdæEdlGacepÞr nigeRbIsRmab;karGPivDÆsgÁmkiic©n igesdækic© nigdIsaFarN³rbs;rdæ EdlminGacepÞrkm μsiT§i. enAkñúgPaBCam©as;km μsiT§iÉkCn c,ab;enHTTYlsÁal; ]TahrN_³ kmμ siT§irbs;buKÁl ¬CMBUk1¦ nigkmμsiT§ishmUhPaB ¬CMBUk3 Epñk2¦. 110

sUmemIl Éksar GMBIkarbeNþjRbCaBlrdæcMnYn105RKYsar enARkugRBHsIhanu [ecjBIlMenAzaneday bgçMnigedayxusc,ab;/ GgÁkarlIkadU ExkkádaqñaM2007.

siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa 49

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

kaMePøIgGaka47 (AK47) nigRbdab;edayr)aMgkarBarRkumk ub,kr)anmkdl;PUmienH ehIy)an bBa¢aGñkPUmi[cakecjBIlMenAzan. man®sþIxøH)anBüayamcrcasuMBnüakarbeNþjecjenaH b:uEnþnKr)al)anbdiesF. eBlenaHkarb:HTgÁicKñak¾)anpÞúHeLIg. kgnKr)al)an)aj;rHeTAelI nig)aj;P¢g;dI rIÉGñkPUminaMKñaKb;dMf μ sMbkdb nigkarBarxøÜnedaydak;r)aMgExSlYsbnøakarBar. eBlenaH kgnKr)al)andkfy ehIyeRkaymkk¾vilRtLb;mkvij edaymankgCMnYy RbEhl150nak; EdlkñúgenaHmaneyaFanigkgraCGavuFhtßcUlrYmEdr.

RkumGñkPUmi nigbuKÁliktamdansPaBkarN_rbs;GgÁkarsiT§imnusS )anraykarN_fa kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuFTaMgenaH )anmkdl;ed aymanRtak;T½rKas;kay nigrfynþGKÁiP½yBIr eRKOgEdlmanTwklaynigsaMg. kgkmøaMgRbdab; GavuFTaMgenaH elIkenH)an)aj;rHeTAelI GakasnigP¢g;dIeTot EdlenAeBlenaH)anvayd MRbCaBlrdænwgdMbgqk;. manGñkPUmi18nak;/ burs13 nig®sþI5nak; RtUvrbYs nigmanmnusSC aeRcInkñúgcMeNamRbCaBlrdæTaMgenaH snøb;)at; sμartI. rIÉkgnKr)alBIrnak;k¾RtUvrbYsEdr.

kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuFenAEtbnþkarvaykMeTc enAkñúgPUmi RBmTaMgeKniyayfakgkmøaMg TaMgenaH)anykrbs;rbrmantémøBIGñkPUmi rYmTaMgm:UtUcMnYn16eRKOgpg. rYcBYkeKbnþdutpÞH sEm,gcMnYn80xñg rYmTaMgsemøókbMBak;nigrbs;rbrepSg²eTot EdlkgkmøaMgraCrdæaPi)al minyk. pÞHcMnYn26xñgeTotRtUvvaykMeTc.

eRkayBImanGMeBIhigSaenaHmk RbCaBlrdæ1 3nak;RtUvcab;xøÜn vaydM nigbBa¢ÚneTA Bn§naKar EdlenATIenaHBYkKat;RtUveKsYrcemøIy. mnusSEdlCab;mnÞIrXuMXaMgenaH RtUvCab;ecaT BIbT {bgárbYssμ am} ¬tammaRta41énc,ab;EdleKehAfa c,ab;G‘untak; EdlenAman RbsiT§PaBenAeLIy 111¦ nig BIbT {bMpøajRTBüsm,tþi} ¬tammaRta52¦.

bursTaMgenaHRtUv)an karBaredayemFavI mkBIGgÁkarlIkadUEdlCaGgÁkareRkArdæa Pi)alkm<úCaEpñksiT§imnusSQanmuxmYy. enAéf¶TI3- 4 Exkkáda qñaM2007 BYkKat;RtUvtulakar RkugRBHsIhnukat;kþI BIbTBak;B½n§nwgGMeBIh igSaEdl)anekIteLIgenAGMLúgeBlénkarbeNþj

111

{ bTbBaØtþisþIBIRbB½n§tulakar c,ab;RBh μTNÐ nignItiviFIRBh μTNÐsRmab;GnuvtþenARbeTskm<úCakñúgsm½y Gnþrkal} / ]tþmRkumRbwkSaCatiCnx<s;/ esckþIseRm ccitþ enAéf¶TI10ExkBaØaqñaM 1992.

50 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

ecj Edl)anbMpøajlMenAzan nigrbs;rbreRbIR)as;rbs;Kat;esÞIrEtTaMgGs; 112. PaBRsbc,ab;énkarbeNþjecj nigrebobGnuvtþkarbeNþjecjenaH minRtUv)aneK

elIkykmkBinitüTal;EtesaH enAkñúgGMLúgeBlebIksvnakarenaH RBmTaMgK μankarBüayamrk [eXIjnUvkarTTYlxusRtUvcMeBaHGMeBIhigSanigkarbMpøajenaHeLIy.

tamkarBiteTA eTaHbICakarkat;eTasenaHxkxanmin)anbgðajPsþútagTak;TgnwgbuKÁl EdlRbRBwtþbTel μ IstamkarecaTRbkan;enaHk¾eday k¾GñkPUmi9nak;RtUvtulakarkat;eTasfa mankMhusEdr. KμansakSIEdlGacbBa¢ak;GMBIedImecaTNa mñak;EdlrbYs nigxUcxatRTBüsm,tþi tamkarecaTRbkan;enaHeT.

RbCaBlrdæbIrUbRtUvkat;eTasBIbT {bgá[manrbYssμ am} nig {eFVI[xUcxatRTBü sm,tþi}. RbCaBlrdæbYnrUbeTot RtUvtulaka rrkeXIjfa mankMhusBIbTXubXit[ {RbmUl dMufμ} edIm,ICYyGñkepSg[ykduMfμ Kb;kgkmøaMgGnþrKmn_ b¤BIbTb:unb:bMpøajRTBüsm,tþisaFarN³ edayykdMufμKb;rfynþGKÁiP½y. eyagtamkarvinicä½yeTasenaH tulakar)ansnñidæanfa karb:un b:genaHbraC½y³ minbNþal[mankarxUcxateT.

bursBIrrUbRtUvkat;eTasedaymñak;kM)aMgmux [Cab;Bn§naKa8Ex nigBüÜreTasbYnEx. R)aMBIrnak;eTotRtUvkat;eTas[Cab;Bn§naKar75 éf¶ EdlbBa©b;enAéf¶TI4ExkkádaqñaM2007. bursR)aMnak;RtUvkat;eTas[rYceTas rYmTaMgGnItiCnmñak; EdltamGñkcUlrYmtamdankarkat;kþI enaH)an bBa¢ak;GHGagenAkñúgtulakarfa RtUveKbgçM[sarPaBfa)ancUlrYmRbRBwtþbTel μ Is.

RBHraCGaCJa)anbþwg]T§rN_cMeBaHkarkat;e TasmnusSR)aMbYnrUbenaH. elakmanTsSn³ fa karkat;eTasenaHRsaleBk113 ehtudUecñHehIyGñkEdlRtUvtulakarkat;eTasenaHminTan; RtUvedaHElgeT eTaHbICaBYkKat;Cab;Bn§naKarRKb;ry³eBlehIyk¾eday edIm,IebIksvnakarenA sala]T§rN_EdlminTan;)ankMNt;eBlenAeLIy EtGacnwgeRbIry³eBlCaeRcInqñaM. enHbBa¢ak;

112

R)aMbYnnak;RtUvkat;[Cab;eTas R)aMnak;RtUvkat;[r YceTas enAeBlkat;kþIGñkPUmienARkugRBHsIhanu/ GtßbTrbs; kaEst Dw EXmbUDa edlI/ éf ¶TI5 Exkkáda qñaM2007. 113

karkat;eTasGñkPUmienARkugRBHsIhnu RtUvbþwgeTAsala]T§rN_/ GtßbTrbs;kaEst Dw EXmbUDa edlI/ éf¶TI11 Exkkáda qñaM2007.

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ya:gc,as;famankarXuMXaMgtamTMenIgcitþ. Gg ÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCati sUmGMBav[edaH ElgRbCaBlrdæTaMgenaHCabnÞan;.

pÞHcMnYnrhUtdl; 80 RtUv)andutbMpøajkñúgeBlbeNþjecj.

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CalT§plénkarbeNþjecjenaH manRKYsarCaeRcIn EdlPaKeRcInCaGñkensaT nigCa

Gñklk;dUrtameqñrsmuRTkMbuikkMb:ukenaH )an)at ;bg;RTBüsm,tþipÞal;xøÜn dUcCasMNaj; nig ]bkrN_epSg²eTot nigTICRmkCaedIm. enAeBlEdleyIgkMBugsresrr)aykarN_enH RbCa BlrdæCag90RKYsar )ansg;CRmkrs;enARbcaMéf ¶kñúgsßanPaBtUcceg¥ótEmnETn enAtamcieBa©Im pøÚv Ek,rPUmirbs;Kat;. BYkKat;xVHCRmkrs;enA/ cMNIGahar/ TwksRmab;briePaK nigGnam½y RbcaMéf¶ k¾dUcCaxVHmeFüa)ayRbkbrbrciBa©wm CIviteTotpg. kumarCaeRcInmansuxPaBminl¥ edaysarmanCMgW pþasay RKunekþA b¤raKrUsCaedIm.

{ eKdutpÞHrbs;´. \LÚvenH´rs;enAeRkamdMbUltg;enAtamcieBa©ImpøÚv. GgÁkareRkA rdæaPi)almYy)anpþl;tg;TaMgenHmkeyIg´ }.

RkumGñkPUmiminTTYl)ankarKaMRTBIrdæaPi)ale T b:uEnþTTYl)ankarRTBICMnYymnusSFm’xøH eTot BIbNþajGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al rYmmandUc Ca GgÁkarlIkadUEdlCaGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al EpñksiT§imnusSEdl)anCYyGñkmanrbYs GñkCMgW nigmanCMgWP½ytk;søútrYmTaMgkumarEdlxVH GaharUbtßmÖCaedIm EdlTnÞwmnwgenaHk¾pþl;CMnYyEpñkc,ab;eTotpg.

52 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - kar beNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

GñkPUmimñak;)anR)ab;GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatidUecñHfa³ { kUnRbusrbs;´RtUveKcab;xøÜn nigRtUvvaydM enAeBlEdlvakMBugRbEmRbmUlrbs;rbr BIpÞH. ´)aneXIjeKnaMkUnRbusrbs;´ecjeTA TaMgvaydMpg. eBlenaHeKcgva ehIy rujcUlkñúgrfynþ} . { BImun vaFøab;eTArkRtInigeFVIERscMkar. \L ÚvenH etI[B´wgGñkNa? taMgBIeKcab;vaeTA m´inGacrkR)ak;)anmYyeroleLIy. pÞHrbs;´RtUveKdutexÞcGs;ehIy} .

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

6> karkarBar RkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS { mnusSRKb;rUb mansiT§ipÞal;xøÜn nigsiT§irYmC amYyGñkdéT kñúgkarelIksÞÜy nigkarxitxM RbwgERbgkarBarnigeFVI[seRmc)annUvsiT§imnusS nigesrIPaBCamUldæan} . maRta1énesckþIRbkassþIBIRkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS 114 / Gnum½tedaymhasnñi)at

GgÁkarshRbCaCatienAqñaM1998. enAkñúgsßanPaBénkarbeNþjecjedaybgç MenaH RkumGñkkarBardIFøInigFnFanFm μCati

nigsiT§imnusSRbQmnwgkarKabsgát;kan;EtxøaM geLIg²BIGaCJaFr nigKURbECgrbs;eK)aneRbI tulakarCameFüa)ayedIm,IbBaÄb;skm μPaBrbs;Kat; nigedIm,IbiTmat;rbs;RkumenH.

RkumGñksarB½t’manEdlsresrGMBIRbFanbTdUcCa karrMelaPdIFøI nigkarkab;éRBeQI xusc,ab; EdldkhUtykéRBshKmn_ nigCIvPa Brs;enArbs;shKmn_enaH RtUvTTYlkarKMram dl;GayuCIvit. buKÁlikGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)al dUcC a emFavI CaedIm TTYlkarKMramkMEhg bþwgpþl; EdlmankarecaTRbkan;BIbTRBh μTNÐ cMeBaHkargarrbs;buKÁlikeFVIkarCamYyshKmn_Edl manvivaTdIFøI nigEdlRbQmnwgkarbeNþjecj. skmμ CnmUldæanCaeRcInEdlBüayamkarBar GVIEdleKdwgfa CadIFøIrbs;Kat;enaH RtUvTTYlrgnUvkarecaTRbkan;CaeRcIn. RkumemdwknaM shKmn_ RtUv)anhamXat;edayGaCJaFrextþmin[ecjBIPUmieTAcUlrYmRbCuM nigsikçasalanana EdlmanRbFanbTsþIBIsiT§iCnCatiedImPaKticeT.

RkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusSCaeRcInEdlBüayamkarBardI brisßan b¤éRBeQI)anR)ab; GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatifa BYkKat;P½yxøac karvaydM/ karcab;xøÜn nigkareRbIkmøaMgbgçit bgçM.

6>1 karcab;xøÜnnigkarvaydM GñkRsI ra:vI Gayu49qñaM EdlCam©as;haglk;s‘ub nigCatMNageRkApøÚvkarrbs;GñkPUmi

enAextþesomrab )anR)ab;GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatifa { eyIgTaMgGs;KñamanGarm μ N_famin

114 eQμ aHeBjGanfa³ {esckþIRbkassþIBIsiT§i nigkarTTYlxusR tUvrbs;buKÁl Rkum nigGgÁkarsgÁm kñúgkarelIk sÞÜy nigkarBarsiT§imnusS nigesrIPaBmUldæanEdlRtUv)anTTYlsÁal;Caskl}.

54 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

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suxesaHkñúgkarniyaysþI. manmþgenaHenAeBlEdlmaneKmkCYbsmÖasn_CamYyeyIg´ [G MBI sßanPaBenaH ] eyIg)anniyayR)ab;BYkeKRKb;Ebbya:g. BIr-bI éf¶eRkaymk BYkeyIgRtUveK ekaHehAeLIgtulakar}.

GñkRsIRtUveKykecjBItulakarextþesomra b eTABn§naKar EdlGñkRsIRtUveKXuMenA TIenaH edayeKecaTRbkan;BIbT {júHjg;[RbRBwtþbTel μ Is}. 12éf¶eRkaymk GñkRsIra:vI RtUveKedaHElgecjBImnÞIrXuMXaMg eRkayBImank arGMBavnavrbs;semþch‘un Esn naykrdæm®nþI énRbeTskm<úCa enAExmIna qñaM2005 edIm,I[ edaHElgGñkCab;XuMXaMgTaMgGs;EdlCab;Tak;Tg nwgvivaTdIFøI.

GñkRsI)antva:RbqaMgnwgGaCJaFr EdleRbIRtak;T½rQUsrbgenAkñúgPUmirbs;GñkRsI Edl sßanPaBtampøÚvc,ab;kMBugenAmanvivaTrvagGñk PUminigGaCJaFrGbSra EdlCasßab½nrdæEdlman siT§iGMNacRKb;RKg R)asaTGgÁr nigbrievNenACuMvijR)asaT.

eRkayBImankarb:unb:g)aj;Rbhar nigkarsmøab;eRKagTukBIrelIkedayELkBIKñaelI skmμCnéRBeQIshKmn_BIrrUbenAqñaM2005rYcmk skm μCnmñak;eTot)anR)ab;GgÁkarelIkElg eTasGnþrCatifa³

{ eyIgElghaneFVIGVIEdlrwgTTwgeTotehIy. vaBi)akNas; eRBaHrhUtmkdl;eBlenH K μanCnel μ IsNamñak;RtUvrkeXIjnigcab;xøÜneT. eb IsinCaeKeXIjfa eyIgRbqaMgnwgGñk Namñak;EdlxøaMg enaHeyIgmindwgfa GVInwgGacekIteLIgcMeBaHeyIgeT,Iy }. eRkayBIkarvayRbharenaHmk bursBIrnak;)an eKclak;xøÜn ehIy)anbgðajxøÜnenAextþ

epSgenAExkkáda qñaM2005. sakSICaeRcIn)a neXIjehtukarN_)aj;Rbhar EdlkrNIvay RbharTaMgBIrelIkenaHRtUv)anGgÁkarsiT§imnusSraykarN_CUnGaCJaFr. m®nþICan;x<s;mñak;Edl )aneXIjehtukarN_enaH b:uEnþsuMminbeBa©jeQ μaH)anR)ab;GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatifa { mnusSRKb;rUbdwgfa GñkNaCaGñk)aj;} b:uEnþ eTaHbICamanesckþIraykarN_fa elak huk Lg;DI emnKr)alCati )anbBa¢a[cuHesIubGegáterOgkþIenaHk¾eday k¾rhUtmkdl;eBlenHK μankarcuH esuIbGegátNamþgeLIy. enAkñúgExkkáda qñaM2007 bursmñak;énbursTaMgBIrrUbenaH)anrYcputBI karvayRbharedayRKab;Ebk enApÞHf μ Irbs;Kat;. enAkñúgExdEdlenaH skmμCnshKmn_ eQ μaH esg sar:n EdlFøab;mansm<½n§PaBCamYyGgÁkarGadhukEdlCaGgÁkarsiT§imnusSCayUrmk

siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþ jecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa 55

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

ehIyRtUveK)aj;søab;enAkñúgextþsÞwgERtgEdltamesckþIraykarN_fa eRkayBIKat;)anelIk Twkcitþya:gskmμ [RbCaBlrdæenAkñúgshKmn_tva:RbqaMgnwgkarepÞrkm μsiT§iFnFanFm μCati nig RbqaMgnwgkarrMelaPdIFøI 115 .

6>2 karbgçitbgçMCnCatiedImPaKtic RkumGñktMNagCnCatiedImPaKticBñg 116 EdlTTYlrgplb:HBal;edaysarkarpþl;

sm,TandIdaMedImRsl;enAextþmNÐlKirIPaKxagekItRbeTs k¾RbQmnwg]bsKÁEdrenAeBl EdlBYkKat;BüayamkarBardIshKmn_rbs;Kat;. Ga CJaFrmin)anGnuvtþtamviFIénkarBieRKaH eyabl;CamYyCnCatiBñgmuneBlseRmccitþcugeRkayelI kic©RBmeRBogpþl;sm,Tanrvagrdæa Pi)alnigRkumh‘unenAExsIhaqñaM2004enaHeT. tamemdwknaMshKmn_)anR)ab;GgÁkarelIkElg eTasGnþrCatifa pÞúyeTAvij enAeBlseRmckic©RBmeRBogenaH BYkKat;RtUvGaCJaFrextþKMram [pþitemédnigcuHhtßelxaÉkPaBelIEpnTImYyEd lbegáIt)anCakic©RBmeRBogmYy. manmñak; kñúgcMeNamemdwknaMshKmn_TaMgenaH )anR)ab; GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatifa enAeBlKat; kMBugCiHm:UtUeFVIdMeNIrtampøÚvdac;RsyalmYy GaCJaFr)ansÞak;Xat;Kat;[pþitemédelIEpnTI enaH. tamesckþIraykarN_)an[dwgfa manGñkepS geTotRtUvcuHhtßelxaelIEpnTIenaHenApÞH rbs;m®nþICan;x<s;mñak;enATIrYmextþ enAc MeBaHmuxkgraCGavuFhtß nigtMNagRkumh‘un 117.

115 Ca]TahrN_ sUmemIl kareFVIXatelIGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS elak esg sar:n/ TsSn³GegátedIm,IkarBar GñkkarBarsiT§imnusS/ éf¶TI9 Exkkáda qñaM 2007. 116 CnCatiedImPaKticBñgEdlrs;enAtMbn;x<s;rab en AextþmNÐlKirIPaK|sanénRbeTskm<úCaman54PaKry énRbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;énextþenHEdlmanRbEhl24500nak;. tamkarCMerOnRbCaBlrdæqñaM1998)an[dwgfa manRkumCnCatiedImPaKticénRbeTskm<úCacMnYn17Rku mEdlmanrhUtdl;0/9PaKryénRbCaCnsrub eTaHbICaeK eCOfa cMnYnenHCakar)a:n;s μanminRKb;RCugeRCayk¾eday. Ca]TahrN_ ev TikaGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)alsþIBIkm<úCa vay témøfa cMnYnEdlBitman1/4PaKry. ¬Ca]TahrN_ sUmemIlÉksar RbCaBlrdæCnCatiedImPaKticenAkm<úCa/ evTikaGgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)alsþIBIkm<úCaExemsaqñaM2006.¦ 117

sm,TandIsRmab;eKalbMNgGPivDÆn_esdækic©enAkm<úCa-TsSn³siT§imnusS / tMNagBiessénGKÁelxaFikar GgÁkarshRbCaCati TTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusSRbcaMenAkm<úCa/ Exvicäika qñaM2004 ¬]bsm<½n§³ Rkumh‘un Wuzhishan L.S. Group - dMNaMRsl;enAextþmNÐlKirI/ ExmifunaqñaM2005¦.

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dl;qñaM2005 cMkarRsl;Edl)anbgðaj[eXIjC arUbragenaH )anb:HBal;ya:gxøaMgdl;dI TwkdI nigFnFanrbs;CnCatiBñgrYceTAehIy. eK )anruMB½T§ nigmYyEpñkeTot)anbMpøajdIksikm μ éRB nigpldMNaM/ vales μAnigéRBdUnta nigkEnøgkb;ex μacRbéBNIenACuMvijPUmi 118 . elIsBIenaH eTAeTot karrukranenH b:HBal;dl;vb,Fm’rbs;C nCatiBñgEdlCMenO karRbtibtþisasna nig brisßanRbéBNIrbs;Kat;EdlTak;TgKñaya:gCits ñiT§. CaBiess éRBeQICaebHdUgénCIvPaBCMenO sasnarbs;CnCatiBñgEdleKarBbUCa KWCatMbn;d¾BisidæénéRBCMenO 119 .

enAkñúgExkkádaqñaM2005 tMNagBiessénelakGKÁelxaFikarGgÁkarshRbCaCati TTYlbnÞúkEpñksiT§imnusSRbcaMenARbeTskm<úCa )anGMBavnaveTArdæaPi)al[p¥akkarsm,Tan enaH120³

{ rdæaPi)alnigRkumh‘un min)aneKarBsuxumalPaB vb,Fm’ nigCIvPaBrs;enArbs; RbCaBlrdæEdlCaCnCatiedImPaKticBñg EdlmanRbCaBlrdæCagBak;kNþalénextþ enHeT RBmTaMg)anRbRBwtþel μ Isnwgc,ab;nigsiT§imnusSeTotpg} . CnCatiBñg k¾dUcCaRbCaBlrdærs;enAtMbn;x<g;rabepSg²eTotEdr CaCnCatiTn;exSay

¬K μanGMNac¦ edayK μantMNagrbs;xøÜn enAkñúgrcnasm<½n§GMNacfñak;Cati nigedaysarEtbBaða PasaEdlCa]bsKÁ. PasaBñgCaPasaniyay K μanGkSrsRmab;sresreT ehIyCnCatiBñg niyayPasaEx μr)antictYc b¤minGacniyayEx μr)aneT. tMNagshKmn_ (Blong) bøúg)anBnül;GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCatifa { eyIg)armÖGMBI karsMEdgnUvkgVl;rbs;eyIg. eyIgCaCnCatiP aKtic ehIyeyIghak;dUcCaminGacbBa¢Únsar

118

tMbn;EdlTTYlrgeRKaHbMputenAkñúgRsukGUrraMg CaBiessenAXuMdak;daM nigXuMEsnmenarmü. 119

Ca]TahrN_ sUmemIlÉksar KiteLIgvijelIkarkat; bnßyPaBRkIRkedIm,IkarBar nigelIksÞÜysiT§irbs; CnCatiedImPaKticenAkm<úCa-viFIsa®sþEpñksiT§i mnusScMeBaHkarerobcMEdndI nigRKb;RKgFnFanFm μCati/ evTikaGgÁkar minEmnrdæaPi)alsþIBIkm<úCa/ ExemsaqñaM2005. 120

elak Peter Leuprecht tMNagBiessrbs;elakGKÁelxaFikarTTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusSenAkm<úCa GMBavnav[lub sm,TandIEdl)anpþl;CUn Rkumh‘un Wuzhishan L.S Group enAextþmNÐlKirI. kariyal½yrbs;]tþmsñgkarTTYl bnÞúksiT§imnusSRbcaMkm<úCa/ éf¶TI5Exkkáda qñaM 2005/ http://cambodia.ohchr.org/download.aspx?ep_id=224.

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rbs;eyIgeTARKb;kEnøg)aneT} 121.

6>3 karKMramkMEhgnigkarbMPitbMP½y karecjr)aykarN_ kalBIExmifuna qñaM2007 rbs;KøÚblvIteNs 122 (Global

Witness) EdlCaGgÁkareRkArdæaPi)almanmUldæanenA raCaNacRkGg;eKøsmanyuT§nakarRbqaMg nwgGMeBIekgcMeNjelIFnFanFm μCati )anKUsbBa¢ak;bEnßmeTot GMBIsßanPaBRbkbedayeRKaH fñak; EdlRkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusSkMBugsßitenAkñúgsßanPaBRbkbedayeRKaHfñak;enHEdr. tam GtßbTrbs;sarB½t’manmYy)an[dwgfa r)aykar N_enHminRtUveKGnuBaØat[pSBVpSayenAkñúg RbeTskm<úCaeT ehIym®nþICan;x<s; rYmTaMg elakh‘un eNg EdlCabgrbs;elaknaykrdæm®nþI nigEdlCaGPi)alextþ )anKMrameday cMhfa {nwgsMBgbuKÁlikrbs;GgÁkar Global Witness [ Ebkk,al} 123 eyaltamsarB½t_mancuHpSay.

naykGgÁkar Global Witness elak suIm:n fayl½r (Simon Taylor)manRbsasn_ enAkñúgesckþIEføgsarB½t’manfa124 { karKMramkMEhgbuKÁlikrbs;eyIg BitCaminGacTTYlyk )aneT. karKMramkMEhgya:geRKatRKatEbbenH ed aym®nþICan;x<s;rbs;rdæaPi)al minbgðaj nUvkarebCJacitþelIkkMBs;siT§imnusS nigesrIPaBénkarbeBa©jmtienaHeT}.

RkumGñksarB½t’manEdlsresrerOgenaHTTYln UvkarKMramkMEhg nigRtUveKtamyayI

121 enAeBlsresrr)aykarN_enH BuMmandMeNaHRsaytamkarcrc aenAkñúgkrNIenHeT. karxVHkarbBa¢ak;GMBIPUmi

sa®sþ nigneya)ay eFVI[shKmn_RbQmnwgkarrMelaPsiT§ idIFøIrbs;Kat;bEnßmeTot. BitNas;r)aykarN_Bnül;fa sm,TandIEdlmanTMhMdI100>000hiktacMnYnBIreTot enAPaK|sanRbeTs kMBugRtUv)anBiPakSa b¤GacnwgQandl; kic©RBmeRBogrYcehIy. 122

r)aykarN_ sþIBI ExSRsLay ¬GñklYcCati¦ km<úCa/ bg ðajnUvkarBak;B½n§rbs;m®nþICan;x<s;rbs;rdæaPi)al sm<½n§GñkmanGMNaceyaFa nigsmaCikepSgeTotrbs;kgkmøaMgRbdab;GavuF enAkñúgrcnasm<½n§Rbtibtþikarkab;eQI xusc,ab; sUmebIkemIlkñúgeKhTMB½renH³ http://www.globalwitness.org/media_library_detail.php/546/km/cambodias_family_trees. 123

GgÁkar Global Witness Rcanecalkarhammin[ecjr)aykarN_³ karbBa¢acuHRsavRCav/ GtßbTrbs;kaEst Dw EXmbUDa edlI éf¶TI5 Exmifuna qñaM2007. 124

Rkumm®nþICan;x<s;km<úCa eqøIytbnwgr)aykarN_rbs;GgÁkar Global Witness edaymankarhamR)am nigkar KMrameRbIGMeBIhigSa/ GgÁkar Global Witness ExmifunaqñaM2007.

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manGñkxøH)at;bg;kargarrbs;xøÜnCaGñkkarEst. ehIymanbuKÁlepSgeTot EdlGaCJaFrdwgfa CaGñksresrr)aykarN_enaHRtUvTTYlrgnUvka ryayI nigkarKMramkMEhg EdlmandUcCa kartamdanemIl rhUtdl;karKMramkMEhgGayuCIvitCaedIm.

RbGb;³ GñkTaMgGs;EdlBüayamedaysniþviFI edIm,IkarTTYlsÁal;siT§iCamUldæanEdl

)anbBa¢ak;enAkñúgesckþIRbkasCasklGMBIsiT§imnu sSKWRkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS. GñkxøH CaGñk eFVIkarenAGgÁkarsiT§imnusS CanisSit nigCaRkumyuvCn/ CaRkumsasna/ shCIBkmμ kr/ smaKm GPivDÆn_®sþI/ RKUbeRgon/ kmμ krnigksikr b¤GñkEdlK μankargareFVI.

PaKeRcInénRkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS eFVIkarenA fñak;mUldæan b¤fñak;Cati edayKaMRTkar eKarBsiT§imnusS enAtamshKmn_ nigRbeTsrbs;xøÜn. enAkñúgsßanPaBEbbenH édKUkargar rbs;eKKWGaCJaFrmUldæanEdlCYyTTYlxusRtUvkñúgk arFananUvkareKarBsiT§imnusSenAtamextþ¼ Rkug nig enAkñúgTUTaMgRbeTs.

RkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS³ karBarsi T§iedIm,IFanakarBarsiT§imnusS/ Éksarelx29/ kariyal½y]tþmsñgkar TTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusS/ Exemsa qñaM2004/ TMB½r3.

GgÁkarGadhuk EdlCaGgÁkarsiT§imnusSEx μrmYyeTotenaH)anraykarN_fa enAkñúgqñaM

2005 RbCaBlrdæRkIRkcMnYn53nak; 125 nigenAqñaM2006 126 RbCaBlrdæ78nak; EdlBak;B½n§ nwgvivaTdIFøIRtUvcab;xøÜnXuM. cMnYnénkarcab;xøÜnXuM enAqñaM2007KWya:gticNas;k¾121nak; 127 Edr. enAkñúgkrNIPaKeRcIn RbCaBlrdæRtUveKecaTRbkan;BIbTRBh μTNÐ EdlCakarcab;xøÜnedIm,I

125 r)aykarN_GMBIsßanPaBsiT§imnusS qñaM2005/ r)ayka rN_RbcaMqñaMTI5rbs;GadhuksþIBIsiT§imnusS/ ExmIna qñaM2006. 126

r)aykarN_GMBIsßanPaBsiT§imnusS qñaM2006/ r)aykarN_RbcaMqñaMTI6rbs;GadhuksþIBIsiT§imnusS/ ExmIna qñaM2007. 127

kgVl;GMBIkarcab;nigXuMxøÜnedaysarvivaTdIFøI/ KN³km μaFikarRbRBwtþikm μénGgÁkarsmaKmsiT§imnusSkm<úCa / evTikaGgÁkarminEmnrdæaPi)alsþIBIkm<úCa/ esckþIEføgkar N_CasaFarN³ éf¶TI7Exvicäika qñaM2007 )anbBa¢ak;fa skm μCncMnYn121nak; EdlkarBardIFøIRtUvcab;xøÜnrvagBIExmkra dl;Extula qñaM2007.

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karBarBYkKat;BIkarkarBardIEdlmanvivaT b¤kartva:RbqaMgnwgkarrMelaPsiT§irbs;Kat; 128 . GgÁkarelIkElgeTasGnþrCati mankgVl;kan; EtxøaMgeLIgcMeBaHbUrNPaBrbs;tulakar

nigcMeBaHPaBd¾tUcceg¥ót enAkñúgenaH buKÁlRKb;rUbnigRkumTaMgLayGacGnuvtþ eTAtambribT énkarkarBarsiT§imnusS rYmTaMgkñúgb ribTCaBiessénkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM.

7> esckþIsnñidæan karRKb;RKgdIFøI nigFnFanFm μCatiénRbeTskm<úCa EtgEtRtUveKniyayfa sßitkñúg sßanPaBmanvibtiþ. eRkayBIdMeNIrTsSnkic©mkRbeTskm<úCaenAqñaM2005 elak Miloon Kothari GñkraykarN_Biessrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCatiTTYlbnÞúkEpñksiT§imanlMenAzansmrmü EdlCaEpñkmYyénsiT§imankRmitCIvPaBrs;enAsmrmüenaH )anerobrab;nUvGVIEdlelak)aneXIj faCa { sßanPaBrej:réj: Kμ ansNþab;Fñab;enATUTaMgRbeTs edaysarEtRkumGñkman nigGñkmanGMNac enAkñúgRbeTskm<úCakñúglT§km μdIFøI } 129 . karbeNþjecjedaybgçM k¾man cMENkya:gsMxan;EdlbNþal[manvibtþiEbbenHEdr. GaCJaFrkm<úCa minEmnminRKan;Etxkxanmi n)ankarBarRbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜnRbqaMgnwg karbeNþjecjedaybgçMeTAtamc,ab;nigkarGnuvtþ enaHeT b:uEnþEfmTaMgcUlrYmRbRBwtþEbbenaH ya:gskm μEdlbMBanc,ab;GnþrCatiEfmeTotpg. enAxVHkarcUlrYmnigkarBieRKaHeyabl;/ B½t’mansþIBIkarbeNþjecj nigkarruHerIlMenAzan pþl;CUnminRKb;RKan;/ nigeyIgeXIjc,as;Nas; fa karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenaHminEmnCakarbeNþjEdleRbICeRmIscugeRkayenaHeT. pÞúy eTAvij nigedaybMBanbTdæannigc,ab;GnþrCa tipgenaH GaCJaFr)aneRbICeRmIsbeNþjecj edayBuM)aneRbIR)as;Gs;lT§PaBkñúgkarEsVgrkCeRmIsepSgeTotCamunenaHeLIy. xVHtmøaPaB nigPaBbiT)aMgTaMgRsugenACuMvijkrNITaMgenH k¾CakarraraMglT§PaBrbs;

128 r)aykarN_GMBIsßanPaBsiT§imnusSqñaM2005/ r)aykarN_RbcaMqñaMTI5rbs;GadhuksþIBIsiT§imnusS/ ExmIna qñaM2006. siT§imnusSenAkm<úCa³ El,gyutþiFm’/ GgÁkarlIkadU ExFñÚqñaM2007. 129

RbeTskm<úCa {RbQmvibtþidIFøI} GtßbTrbs;b‘Íb‘ÍsuI (BBC) éf¶TI2 ExkBaØaqñaM2005. elak-GñkGacebIk emIl)antameKhTMB½renH http://news.bbc.co.uk/nolpda/ukfs_news/hi/newsid_4207000/4207138.stm. [ebIkemIlcug eRkay éf¶TI28ExmkraqñaM 2008 ]

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shKmn_Edlrgplb:HBal; kñúgkarEsVgrkdMeNaHRs aytampøÚvc,ab; nigkñúgkarGnuvtþsiT§irbs; xøÜn rYmTaMgsiT§imankRmitCIvPaBrs;enAsmrmüpg. edaysarEteKdwgfamanRbCaBlrdæya:gticNas;150>000nak;enATUTaMgRbeTs kMBug rs;enAedayRbQmnwgkarbeNþjecjEdlbNþalmkBI KeRmagGPivDÆn_/ vivaTdIFøInigkarrMelaP dIFøI dUecñHcaM)ac;RtUvbBa©b;eKalkarN_Ktiyut þiCabnÞan; edIm,IkarBarRbCaBlrdæBIkarbeNþjecj edaybgçM nigedIm,IkarBarsiT§imanlMenAzansmrmü nigsiT§idIFøIrbs;CnCatiedImPaKticEfmeTot . viesaFnkm μ c,ab;Kb,IRtUvbBa©Úl³ karhamR)amya:gc,as;las;cMeBaH karbeNþjecj/ viFankarTTYlsÁal;nigkarBarsiT§imandIFøI/ TwkdInigFnFanrbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic/ karBinitü eLIgvijedIm,IFanafa karkMNt;siT§imanlMenAzannigdIFøIRtUv[ÉkPaBKñanwgc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþr Cati/ rYmbBa©ÚlnUvGVIEdlcaM)ac; edayGnuelameTAtameKaledARtwmRtUvtampøÚvc,ab; nigman TMnak;TMngKñaedIm,IseRmceKaledAenaH. eTaHCaya:genHkþI karEkERbc,ab;EtmYymuxminRKb;RKan;eT. fVIebIfa TaMgeKalkarN_ c,ab; nigeKalneya)ay enAxVHxatya:gxøaMgTak;TgnwgkarRbtibtþitamsn§isBaØasþIBIsiT§i mnusSGnþrCatiEdlRbeTskm<úCamankatBVkic©RtU veKarBtamya:genHk¾eday k¾vac,as;Nas;fa karbeNþjecjedaybgçMEdleKeXIjekItmanenATUTaMgRbeTsenaH minEmnmkBIkarxVHxatTaMg enHEtmYymuxenaHeT. karbeNþjecjedaybgçM k¾ekIteLIgedaysarEtxVHRbB½n§Gnuvtþlixit bTdæanKtiyutiþ nigkarxkxankñúgkarGnuvtþ lkçxNÐEdl)anEcgenAkñúgÉksareKalneya)ay enaHEdr. krNIEdlbgðajenAkñúgr)aykarN_enHCaPsþútagya:c,as;fa K μan {kal³eTs³Biess NamYy} kñúgkarsRmYlkarbeNþjenHeT b¤fa mi n)aneRbI {Gs;lT§PaBkñúgkarEsVgrkCeRmIs epSg} b¤fa)anGnuvtþtamkarkarBartamnItiviFIk¾K μanEdr rYmTaMgkarGnuvtþtamlkçxNÐsRmab; pþl;B½t’man karBieRKaHeyabl; nigkarcUlrYm dl;RbCaBlrdæEdlrgplb:HBal; nigsRmab;pþl; lMenAzansmrmüEdlCaCeRmIsepSgb¤dI CaedIm. edayBuM)anTTYlB½t’man nigedayRtUveKpþac; ecjBIkarBieRKaHeyabl;EbbcUlrYm dUecñHRbCaBl rdæEdlrgplb:HBal;k¾RtUveKraraMgmin[man »kasEdleKGacnwgeRCIserIsykCeRmIsry³eBlEvgGMBIbNþayuT§sa®sþ sRmab;GnaKt. enAkñúgkrNITaMgbIenH RbCaBlrdæRtUveKeFVI[K μanlMenAzanrs;enA nigkñúgkrNIBIreTotk¾)an

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bgðajfa manninñakarbeNþjRbCaBlrdæedaybgçMmuneBlmandMeNaHRsaysßaBrcMeBaHvivaT dIFøIedaytulakarEdr. enHbgðajnUvtRmUvkarya:gc,as;fa RtUverobcMtak;EtgeKalkarN_ENnaM fñak;CatisIþBIkarbeNþjecj EdlKb,IRtUvEp¥k elIeKalkarN_mUldæanEdlP¢ab;CamYynwgr)ay karN_enH RBmTaMgKb,I[ÉkPaBnwgc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCatipg. b½NÑkm μsiT§idIFøIGacCa]bkrN_mansuvtßiPaBkñúgkark an;kab;dIFøI. b:uEnþ karGnuvtþc,ab; edaykEnøgnigtamTMenIgcitþ minFana)annUvkar)at;bg;km μsiT§i nigkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM eLIy. dUceyIg)aneXIjehIyfa ktþacMbgénkarXubXitKñaCaTUeTA rvagedImbNþwgdIFøIEdl manGMNacnigmanxñgRkasCamYynwgGaCJa FrmUldæan CakarebIkRck[manb½NÑkm μsiT§idIFøI min c,as;las;edaypþl;siT§iminRsbc,ab;QaneTArkkarepÞrb½NÑkm μsiT§idIFøI nigkarecjdIkabeNþj ecjTaMgggwtggl;edayK μankarkarBartamnItiviFICUnCnrgeRKaH nigQaneTArkkareRbIR)as; RbB½n§tulakaredayGaCJaFrkñúgkarTb;sáat ;CnrgeRKaHmin[karBarsiT§irbs;Kat;. enHcaM)ac; RtUvmanviFankarCak;EsþgnigRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBedIm,IFanafa RbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;man suvtßi PaB kan;kab;dIFøIya:gRKb;RKan; edIm,IkarBarx øÜnBIkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM nigkarKMramkMEhg nigkarbMPitbMP½yepSg²eTot. RbB½n§minc,as;las;EdleKeRbIsRmab;pþl;sm, TandIesdækic© GnuvtþtamnUvKMrUdUcKñaKW³ karcrcarvagRkumh‘unnigGaCJaFrmin)an[saFarN³ CndwgB¤eT/ kic©RBmeRBognananigB½t’man lMGitGMBIRkumh‘un rYmTaMgB½t’manGMBIkmμ siT§ipg RtUvlak;)aMgmin[RbCaBlrdæTUeTAemIl/ karBieRKaHeyabl;CasaFarN³ nigkar vaytémøplb:HBal;brisßannigsgÁmk¾K μanEdr. enHk¾caM )ac;RtUvmanbTdæaneKalneya)aynigbTdæanc,ab; sþIBIesrIPaBénkarTTYlB½t’man karBieRKaH eyabl; nigkarcUlrYm[)anc,as;las; nigRtUvRsbtamlkçxNÐénc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCati. bBaðaénkarGnuvtþc,ab;edaykEnøg nigtamTMenIgcitþ/ PaBlMeGogénRbB½n§tulakarEdl KaMRTGñkEdlmanxñgCamYyGñkmanGMNac/ GMeBIB ukrlYyrIkraldalRKb;RsTab;nigniTNÐPaB KWCaktþacm,g EdlbNþal[raMgsÞHdl;Fmμ aFibetyü nigkarTTYlxusRtUvEdlCalT§plraraMg dl;karGnuvtþsiT§irbs;RbCaBlrdækm<úCa. smPaBcMeBaHmuxtulakarCasiT§imnusSya:gsMxan; 130 nigRbB½n§tulakarCaktþaya:g

130

Ca]TahrN_sUmemIl maRta14 cMNuc ¬1¦énktika sBaØaGnþrCatisþIBIsiT§iBlrdæ nigsiT§ineya)ay.

62 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - kar beNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

sMxan;bMput kñúgkarFanakaredaHRsaykarrMelaPsiT§imnusS. cMeBaHRbCaBlrdækm<úCaRkIRk nig Tn;exSay rYmTaMgCnCatiedImPaKticpgEdlK μanTMnak;TMngGMNac karniyayxagelIenH enA q¶ayBIkarBitNas;. EbbEpnénExSbNþajKaMRT nigkgVHkarTTYlx usRtUv enAEtbnþekItman nigbgá[man lkçxNÐEdlkñúglkçxNÐenaHmankarGnuvtþc,ab;tam TMenIgcitþ ebIsinCasiT§imnusSTaMgGs;min RtUv)ankarBareT. d¾rabNaqnÞ³neya)aykñúgkarbMEbkEbbEpnenHenAEtexSay b¤K μanqnÞ³Bit R)akdeT enaHGñkmanGMNacenAEtGacdkhUtdIF øI nigFnFanBIRbCaBlrdæRkIRknigTn;exSay EdlRbB½n§KaMRTrbs;BYkKat;K μanGnuPaBrwgmaMRKb;RKan;enAeLIyenaH tamTMenIgcitþedayK μan eTaséBr_dEdl. tamkarGnuvtþsiT§imnusStamkatBVkic©rbs;xøÜn nigtamkarFanabBa©b; karbeNþjecjedaybgçM enaHrdæaPi)alkm<úCaKb,ImanqnÞ³neya)ayEbbenaH RBmTaMgBRgIk karkarBarsiT§iRbCaBlrdærbs;xøÜn.

siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa 63

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

8> Gnusasn_ cMeBaHGaCJaFrkm<úCa³ bBaÄb;nigkarBarkMu[mankarbeNþjecjedaybgçMCabnÞan; - bBaÄb;karbeNþjecjedaybgçMCabnÞan;. - Gnum½tc,ab; nigGnuvtþkarhamR)amkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM[)anc,as;las;. - erobcMtak;Etg nigGnum½teKalkarN_ ENnaM sRmab;karbeNþjecj EdlRtUv

Ep¥kelIeKalkarN_mUldæan nigeKalkarN_ENnaMsIþBIkarbeNþjecjEdlEp¥kelI karGPivDÆn_ nigkarpøas;lMenAzan RBmT aMgRtUvRsbeTAtamc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþr CatieTotpg.

- RtUvp¥akkarbeNþjecjRTg;RTayFM²TaMgGs;sin rhUtdl;manviFankarEbbenaH sRmab;Gnuvtþ.

FanasiT§iTTYl)annUvdMeNaHRsayRbkeday RbsiT§PaBCUnRbCaBlrdærgeRKaHTaMgGs; edaysarkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM nigedaysarkarrMelaPsiT§imnusSepSg²eTot³ - ya:gehacNas; RtUvFanafa CnrgeRKaHedaysarkarbeNþjecjedaybgçMTaMgGs;

TTYl)annUvCRmkrs;enA/ Twks¥at/ Gnam½y/ esvakm μsuxaPi)alnigGb;rM kñúgkRmit caM)ac;CaGb,brma edayrYmTaMgkarpþl;CMnYymnusSFm’ enAeBlEdlcaM)ac;pg.

- eKarBsiT§irbs;CnrgeRKaHedaysarkarbeNþjedaybgçMTaMgGs;[TTYl)annUv dMeNaHRsayRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB/ rYmTaMgsiT§iTTYlyutiþFm’ nigsiT§iTTYl)annUv sMNg dUcCa karCYsCulkarxUcxat/ karsþarkRmwtCIvPaBrs;enAeLIgvij/ sMNg/ karbMeBj citþ nigkarFanafa K μanekItmanmþgeTot.

- begáItKN³km μkarRsavRCavÉkraCü edIm,IesIub GegátEsVgrklkçN³énkarGnuvtþ karbeNþjecj dUc)anerobrab;enAkñúgr)a ykarN_enH nigenAkñúgr)aykarN_epSg² eTot nigedIm,Ipþl;Gnusasn_sRmab;karedaHRsayRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBCUnCnrg eRKaHedaysarkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM nigedIm,IkarBarkMu[mankarbeNþjecj edaybgçMeTot.

- karRsavRCavenHKb,IRtUvman karesuIbGegá tGMBItYnaTIrbs;kgnKr)al nigPñak;gar

64 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - kar beNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

Gnuvtþc,ab;epSg²eTot Edl)anCYy[mankarbeNþjecj rYmmandUcCa TMnak; TMng/ PaBRsbc,ab; nigPaBcaM)ac;énkar eRbIkmøaMgnigGavuF k¾dUcCakarcab;xøÜn edayxusc,ab; nigkarbMPitbMP½ydl;RbCaBlrdæ nigdl;RkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS enAkñúgGMLúgeBlbeNþjecj kñúgTsSn³edIm,InaMGñkEdlTTYlxusRtUvkarrMelaP siT§imnusSeLIgtulakaredIm,IrkyutþiFm’. r)aykarN_rbs;KN³km μkardUcenHRtUv RbkasCasaFarN³.

Gnum½tviFankarRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBedIm, IkarBarsiT§imanlMenAzannigdIFøI nigsiT§i mnusSepSg²eTotEdlBak;B½n§nwgkarbeNþjecj³ - erobcMtak;Etg nigGnum½tnUvviFankarCak;Esþg nigRbkbedayRbsiT§PaBedIm,IFana

fa ya:gehacNas; RbCaBlrdæTaMgGs;TTY l)annUvsuvtßiPaBénsiT§ikan;kab;dIFøI RKb;RKan; edIm,IkarBarxøÜnBIkarbeNþjec jedaybgçM nigkarKMramkMEhg nigGMeBI yayIepSg²eTot.

- erobcMtak;Etg nigGnum½tbTdæanc,ab;nigeKalneya)ayRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB sIþBIesrIPaBénkarTTYlB½t’man/ karBieRKaHeyabl; nigkarcUlrYm [RsbeTAtam lkçxNÐénc,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCati edIm,IeKarB karBar nigGnuvtþsiT§icUlrYmrbs; RbCaBlrdækñúgkarseRmccitþTaMgGs;EdlTak;TgnwgkarbeNþjecj nigkarerIlMenA zaneTATItaMgfμ I.

- eFVIviesaFnkm μelIc,ab;EdlmanRsab;edIm,I[eqøIytbnwgsiT§imanlMenAzansmrmü nigsiT§icakputBIkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM dUcCa³

o Fanafa GnuRkwtüsþIBIkarruHerInigtaMglMenAzanf μ IedaybgçMeTAtambribTén KeRmagGPivDÆn_ edayGnuvtþtambTdæan nigc,ab;GnþrCati.

o Fanafa GnuRkwtüTaMgLayEdleFVI[bTbBaØtþiénc,ab;PUmi)alGacGnuvtþ )ancMeBaHsiT§idIFøICasmUhPaBrbs;shKmn_CnCatiedImPaKtic RtUv)an Gnum½t edIm,IFananUvkareKarBsiT§imanlMenAzansmrmürbs;CnCatiedIm PaKtic.

- Fanafa m®nþIGnuvtþc,ab; EdlBak;B½n§k ñúgkarbeNþjecjGnuvtþtamRkmsIlFm’ nig

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eKalkarN_mUldæanrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCati. - Fanafa mankareKarBsiT§irbs;RkumGñkkarBarsiT§imnusS rYmTaMgskmμ CnenA

mUldæanpg kñúgkarsMEdgnUvTukçkgVl;nigkñúgk arGnuvtþsiT§i esrIPaBkñúgkarcUlrYm/ karsMEdgmti nigkareFVIdMeNIr. Fanafa ynþkaredaHRsayvivaT rYmTaMgtulakar nigKN³km μkarsurieyadIpg eKarBya:gdac;xatcMeBaHFmμ aFibetyünignItiviFI nig RtUvdwknaMkaresIubGegátvivaTkm μsiT§iRbkbedaylT§plK μanlMeGog.

- Fanafa bNþaRkumh‘unnigshRKasBaNiC¢km μepSg²eTotEdlmandMeNIrkarenA kñúgRbeTskm<úCa )anyl;dwgGMBIkatBVkic©r bs;xøÜnkñúgkareKarBsiT§imanlMenAzan smrmü rYmTaMgkatBVkic©hamR)ammin[mankarbeNþjecjedaybgçMenAkñúgEdn skmμ PaB nig\T§iBlrbs;xøÜneLIy.

- epJI CabBaðabnÞan;nUvr)aykarN_dMbUgrbs;RbeTskm<úCa eTAKN³km μaFikarTTYl bnÞúksiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ GMBIkarGnuvtþrbs;xøÜneTAtamktikasBaØaGnþr CatisþIBIsiT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ EdlhYskalkMNt;taMgBIéf¶TI30 Ex mifuna qñaM1994 emø:H.

- BicarNa[)anl¥itl¥n;cMeBaHGnusasn_TaMgLay rbs;GñkraykarN_BiessGMBI lMenAzansmrmü nigrbs;tMNagBiessénelakGKÁelxaFikarGgÁkarshRbCa CatiTTYlbnÞúksiT§imnusSRbcaMenARbeTskm<úCa.

eKarBnigkarBarsiT§irbs;RkumGñkkarBarsiT §imnusS rYmTaMgGñkEdlbMeBjkargarEpñk siT§iesdækic© sgÁmkic© nigvb,Fm’ edIm,IGnuvtþkargaredayK μan]bsKÁ karKMrambMPit bMP½y nigkaryayI RsbeTAtamesckþIRb kasrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCatisþIBIRkumGñk karBarsiT§imnusS. elIkkMBs;siT§irbs;RbCaBlrdæCnCatiedImPaKtic eTAtambTdæannigc,ab;Cati nig GnþrCati rYmTaMg esckþIRbkasrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCatisIþBIsiT§iRbCaBlrdæCnCatiedIm PaKticpg tamry³dUcCa³ - edaymankic©shkarCamYyRbCaBlrdæCnCatiedImPaKticRtUvFanafa c,ab;nig

eKalneya)ayTaMgGs; Rsbtam nigelIkkMBs;TaMgRsugnUvsiT§irbs;RbCaBlrdæ

66 siT§imnusSRtUveKrMelaP - karbeNþjecjedaybgçMenARBHraCaNacRkkm<úCa

Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

CnCatiedImPaKtic kñúgkarcUlrYmseRmccitþnanaEdlb:HBal;dl;siT§irbs;Kat; nig kñúgkarbdiesFcMeBaHral;skmμ PaBEdlb:HBal;dl;siT§irbs;Kat; EdlTak;TgnwgdI EdndI nigFnFannana ebIsinCaRbCaBl rdæCnCatiedImPaKticminyl;RBmc,as; las; CamunnigedayK μankarbgçitbgçMeT.

- edaymankic©shkarCamYyRbCaBlrdæCnCatiedImPaKtic RtUvBinitüseRmcelI GnuRkwtüsþIBIkarcuHbBa¢IdIFøIrbs;CnCatiedImPaKtic edIm,I[karkarBarEdlman Rsab;EdlmanenAkñúgc,ab;PUmi)al Ga cRtUv)anGnuvtþRbkbedayRbsiT§PaB.

- TnÞwmKñaenaHEdr RtUvFanafa karkarBarCabeNþaHGasnñcMeBaHkarkan;kab;dIFøIeday CnCatiedImPaKtic tamc,ab;PUmi)alRtUv)anGnuvtþTaMgRsug.

- RtUvFanafa RbCBlrdæCnCatiedImPaKticmansiT§iTTYl)annUvynþkarRbkbeday RbsiT§PaB nigyutþiFm’ sRmab;edaHRsayvivaTdIFøI nigsRmab;pþl;dMeNaHRsay enAeBlEdlGacGnuvtþ)an edayrYmmandUcCa karRbKl;dIFøICUnCnCatiedImPaKtic vij edaymankaryl;RBmc,as;las;CamunnigedayK μankarbgçitbgçM.

- pþl;karbNþúHbNþal nigFnFanepSg²Edlca M)ac;CUnRbCaBlrdæCnCatiedImPaKtic edIm,IeRbIR)as;siT§irbs;Kat; EdlTak;TgnwgdIFøInigFnFannanaEdlsMxan;bMput sRmab;suxumalPaB nigGtþ sBaØaNvb,Fm’rbs;Kat;.

- Fanafa BakübNwþgGMBIkaryayI b¤karbMpøajRTBüsm,tiEdlGnuvtþRbqaMgnwgRbCa BlrdæCnCatiedImPaKtic RtUv)anesIubGegát ehIyGñkEdlTTYlxusRtUvkñúg karGnuvtþ enaHRtUvnaMeLIgtulakaredIm,IrkyutiþFm’.

cMeBaHRbeTsGñkpþl;CMnYyGnþrCati³ - CMruj[rdæaPi)alkm<úCaGnum½tviFankarna naEdlCa Gnusasn_enAkñúgr)aykarN_enH

rYmTaMgkarGMBavnav[bBa©b;karbeNþjecjedaybgçM edIm,IedaHRsaynUvkarGnuvtþ karbeNþjecjedaybgçMEdlCa]bsKÁya:gF¶ n;F¶r nigCakarraraMgedayxusc,ab; cMeBaH karkat;bnßyPaBRkIRk CaBiessCa]bsKÁkñúgkarkat;bnßyPaBgayrgeRKaH rbs;RbCaBlrdæRkIRkenAtamCnbT EdlCIvPaBrs;enArbs;BYkKat;BwgEp¥kTaMg

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Amn esty Intern ation al Febr uar y 2008 AI Index: ASA 23/00 2/20 08

RsugelIFnFanFm μCati. - Fanafa CMnYyGnþrCatiminKaMRTdl;karrMelaPsiT§imnusS rYmTaMgminKaMRTdl;kar

beNþjecjedaybgçMeT. - KaMRTkarerobcMeKalkarN_ENnaMfñak;CatiGMBIkarbeNþjecj edayEp¥kelIeKal

karN_mUldæanrbs;GgÁkarshRbCaCati nigeKalkarN_ENnaMsþIBIkarGPivDÆ nig karbeNþjecjEdlEp¥kelIkarGPivDÆ. eKalkarN_EbbenaH RtUvEtRsbeTAnwg c,ab;siT§imnusSGnþrCati.

- enAeBlEdlcaM)ac; elIksMeNIpþl;CMnYynigkic©shkarGnþrCati rYmmanCMnYy EpñkhirBaØvtßúnigbec©keTs edIm,IKaMRTRbeTskm<úCa enAeBlEdlRbeTsenH BüayamGnuvtþtamkatBVkic©GMBIsiT§imnusS edIm,IhamR)am nigkarBarmin[man karbeNþjecjedaybgçM nigedIm,IFana[mank RmitsuvtßiPaBkan;kab;dIFøIRKb;RKan; CUnRbCaBlrdæTUTaMgRbeTs.

- BicarNaelIkic©RbwgERbgbEnßmedaymanTisedAEklMGkarRKb;RKgerobcMdIFøI nig suvtßiPaBkan;kab;dIFøIedaymanKMnitpÜþcepIþm EdlmaneKalbMNgbBa©b;karbeNþj ecjedaybgçM nigedIm,IkarBarsiT§ima nlMenAzansmrmürbs;RbCaBlrdækm<úCa.

- enAeBlEdlrdæaPi)alkm<úCa K μanqnÞ³ b¤minGacGnuvtdUecñaH)aneT RtUvBicarNaelI kic©RbwgERbgEdlKaMRTya:gsmrmürbs;sgÁms uIviledIm,Ipþl;CMnYymnusSFm’CUnCn rgeRKaHedaysarkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM nigedIm,IedaHRsaynUvesckIþRtUvkar rbs;bNþashKmn_EdlRbQmnwgkarbeNþje cj rYmTaMgkarpSBVpSaycMeNHdwg GMBIsiT§imankRmitCIvPaBrs;enAsmrmü ni gsiT§ikarBarnwgkarbeNþjecjedaybgçM pg.

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