International standards

United Nations
The UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders was adopted by the UN General Assembly on 9 December 1998. It lays out the basic principles that must be fully respected by all governments in order to ensure that human rights defenders can carry out their work freely and without fear of reprisals.

<http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/(Symbol)/A.RES.53.144.En?OpenDocument>UN Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders)</a>

<http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html>Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)</a>

The Special Representative to the Secretary General of the United Nations on Human Rights Defenders was created in April 2000 to report to the UN General Assembly on the situation of human rights defenders in all parts of the world.

Hina Jilani, an advocate of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, was appointed to the post in August 2000. Her reports and other information about the Special Representative can be found through the following link:

<http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/defenders/index.htm>Special Representative to the Secretary General of the United Nations on Human Rights Defenders</a>
<LINK>Fact Sheet No. 29, Human Rights Defenders: Protecting the Rights to Defend Human Rights</a> from the Office of the United Nations Commissioner for Human Rights (downloadable PDF)

European Union
EU Foreign Ministers adopted the following European Union Guidelines on Human Rights Defenders at a meeting in Luxembourg on 14 June 2004. They provide for interventions by the European Union in support of human rights defenders at risk and suggest practical means to provide support and assistance.

<LINK>EU Guidelines on Human Rights Defenders - English</a> (downloadable PDF)
<LINK>Directrices de la UE sobre defensores de derechos humanos - Spanish</a> (downloadable PDF)
<LINK>Orientations de l'Union Européenne concernant les défenseurs des droits de l'homme - French</a> (downloadable PDF)

Organization of American States
The following resolutions have been adopted by the General Assembly of the Organization of American States in support of the work of human rights defenders in the Americas.

<http://www.oas.org/xxxvga/english/default.asp>Resolution of the Organization of American States on Human Rights Defenders, June 2005</a>
<http://www.oas.org/xxxivga/english/>Resolution of the Organization of American States on Human Rights Defenders, June 2004</a>
<http://www.oas.org/juridico/english/ga03/agres_1920.htm>Resolution of the Organization of American States on Human Rights Defenders, June 2003</a>
<http://www.oas.org/xxxiiga/english/docs_en/docs_items/agres1842_02.htm>Resolution of the Organization of American States on Human Rights Defenders, June 2002</a>
<http://www.oas.org/assembly2001/documentse/decl-resol.aprv/ag-res1818xxxi-o-01.htm>Resolution of the Organization of American States on Human Rights Defenders, June 2001</a>
<http://www.oas.org/assembly2001/assembly/docsaprovados/aprodocen/res1711.htm>Resolution of the Organization of American States on Human Rights Defenders, June 2000</a>
<http://www.oas.org/assembly2001/assembly/eng/apr1671.htm>Resolution of the Organization of American States on Human Rights Defenders, June 1999</a>

 

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